Transforming the energy sector: the evolution of technological systems in renewable energy technology
This paper analyses the development and diffusion of technologies that utilize renewable energy sources in Germany, Sweden and the Netherlands. The analysis enlarges the life cycle model of industry evolution to one where the focus is on the formation and evolution of new technological systems. Particular focus is on explaining success and failures in shifting from a formative phase into one characterized by positive feedbacks. A set of challenges is identified for policy makers attempting to influence the process of transforming the energy sector.
 The Future of Seawater Desalination: Energy, Technology, and the Environment
In recent years, numerous large-scale seawater desalination plants have been built in water-stressed countries to augment available water resources, and construction of new desalination plants is expected to increase in the near future. Despite major advancements in desalination technologies, seawater desalination is still more energy intensive compared to conventional technologies for the treatment of fresh water. There are also concerns about the potential environmental impacts of large-scale seawater desalination plants. Here, we review the possible reductions in energy demand by state-of-the-art seawater desalination technologies, the potential role of advanced materials and innovative technologies in improving performance, and the sustainability of desalination as a technological solution to global water shortages.
 Geothermal energy technology and current status: an overview
Geothermal energy is the energy contained as heat in the Earth’s interior. This overview describes the internal structure of the Earth together with the heat transfer mechanisms inside mantle and crust. It also shows the location of geothermal fields on specific areas of the Earth. The Earth’s heat flow and geothermal gradient are defined, as well as the types of geothermal fields, the geologic environment of geothermal energy, and the methods of exploration for geothermal resources including drilling and resource assessment.
 Constraints and Incentives in Using Renewable Energy Technology in MSMEs: A Mexican Case
This paper shows the results of an investigation aimed to determine if some organizational and market variables are related to the propensity of micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) to use renewable energy. The methodology of the study is correlational, and uses statistical techniques such as contingency tables and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to analyze the relationships between the dependent and independent variables. We included 160 micro, small and medium enterprises. The sample included 86 percent of companies with fewer than 10 workers; 11% of 10 to 50 workers; and 3% 50 to 250 workers. The method of data collection involved the application of a survey of owners and managers of companies. Significant relationships between the dependent variable intention to invest in renewable energy and geographic dispersion of market variables and level of information on renewable energy were also found. Among the main findings we conclude that the factor most related to the adoption of behaviors associated with sustainable consumption, would be the level of information they have access to MSMEs, which suggests the importance of designing programs to improve the quality and quantity of information available for the different business segments, especially for those who meet other characteristics associated with the adoption of these technologies, such as greater vertical integration, more dispersed markets and higher levels of income.
 Evaluation of Stiffness in Compression Perpendicular to Grain of Brazilian Tropical Wood Species
It is essential to have full knowledge of wood properties, such as strength and stiffness, for the preparation of reliable structural designs. The Brazilian Code ABNT NBR 7190 (1997) establishes that the modulus of elasticity in compression perpendicular to grain (Ec90) can be obtained in a simplified way, in the absence of experimental determination, by means of a correlation with the modulus of elasticity in the direction parallel to grain (Ec0 = 20 Ec90). In order to verify the adequacy of this expression, the results obtained for five species of wood, covering the strength classes assumed by the mentioned Code were analyzed: Cambará Rosa (Erisma sp.), C20; Cedro Amazonense (Cedrella sp.), C30; Cupiúba (Goupia glabra), C40; Itaúba (Mezilaurus itauba), C50; Roxinho (Peltogyne sp.), C60. For each species, from the tests prescribed by ABNT NBR 7190, the elastic moduli were obtained in the directions parallel and normal to grain. In the evaluation of the precision of the proposed estimation, the least squares method was used to determine the coefficient α of the investigated relation. For the data set involving the five species studied, the coefficient resulted in α = 20.64. This value is compatible with the correlation proposed by the Brazilian standard, evidencing its reliability.
 Jacobsson, S. and Bergek, A., 2004. Transforming the energy sector: the evolution of technological systems in renewable energy technology. Industrial and corporate change, 13(5), pp.815-849.
 Elimelech, M. and Phillip, W.A., 2011. The future of seawater desalination: energy, technology, and the environment. science, 333(6043), pp.712-717.
 Barbier, E., 2002. Geothermal energy technology and current status: an overview. Renewable and sustainable energy reviews, 6(1-2), pp.3-65.
 Segura, F., Ríos, B., Rivera, P., de la Rosa, H. and Zárate, J., 2016. Constraints and Incentives in Using Renewable Energy Technology in MSMEs: A Mexican Case. British Journal of Economics, Management & Trade, 14(3), pp.1-8.
 de Souza Almeida, A., Lanini, T.L.S., Caetano, J.A., Christoforo, A.L. and Lahr, F.A.R., 2018. Evaluation of stiffness in compression perpendicular to grain of Brazilian tropical wood species. Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, pp.1-7.