Age at Establishment of Helicobacter pylori Infection and Gastric Carcinoma, Gastric Ulcer, and Duodenal Ulcer Risk
Helicobacter pylori is an important risk factor for gastric cancer, gastric ulcer, and duodenal ulcer, yet most infected persons do not develop disease. We examined two correlates of acquisition age, sibship size and birth order, to evaluate the hypothesis that early life acquisition of H. pylori is a risk factor for the development of these illnesses. In earlier nested case-control studies of a cohort of Japanese American men in Hawaii, evidence of H. pylori infection was associated with the development of gastric cancer or gastric or duodenal ulceration during the subsequent period, 1968–1989.
Quality of gastric ulcer healing: a new, emerging concept.
Assessment of gastric ulcer healing is usually based on a visual examination (by endoscopy in patients, or the evaluation of ulcer size in experimental studies), and not on histologic and ultrastructural assessment of subepithelial mucosal healing. This approach has led to the assumption that the mucosa of grossly “healed” gastric and/or duodenal ulcers returns to normal, either spontaneously or following treatment. 
Relationship between Helicobacter pylori eradication and reduced duodenal and gastric ulcer recurrence: A review
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The aim of this study was to determine whether the current literature supports the use of Helicobacter pylori cure as the primary efficacy end point in peptic ulcer clinical trials. This could potentially reduce the complexity of future trials. METHODS: Published articles containing information on both H. pylori eradication and ulcer recurrence were searched with MEDLINE. Abstracts were found by reviewing references from both primary and review articles. RESULTS: Fourteen duodenal ulcer and five gastric ulcer studies satisfied requisite inclusion criteria. 
Diclofenac-induced Gastric Ulceration in Rats: Protective Roles of Pantoprazole and Misoprostol
Gastrointestinal damage caused by diclofenac remains a significant clinical problem. Pantoprazole provides potent and long-lasting inhibition of gastric acid secretion and has proven efficacy in healing diclofenac-associated ulcers, including those with continued exposure to diclofenac. The objective of this study was to prepare and evaluate microbeads of diclofenac sodium coated with sodium alginate and Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) in order to obtain controlled release drug delivery system. The ulcerogenic activity and histopathological effects of the prepared formulation were compared with a marked formula containing the drug with misoprostol which orally administered to male Wistar rats. Ionotropic gelation technique was the technique of choice to encapsulate the drug. IR spectral analysis indicated no interaction between the drug and polymers used. Microbeads which showed a significant reduction in the release of diclofenac at acidic pH of 
Non-Helicobacter pylori, Non-NSAID Peptic Ulcer Disease: An Important Consideration in the Evaluation of Patients with Gastric or Duodenal Ulcers
Peptic ulcers are common although the pattern of aetiology is changing. The traditionally most frequent causes of Helicobacter pylori infection and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory toxicity are likely to assume less relative importance as the proportion of cases attributed to other causes rises. Primary care physicians should be aware the pathogenesis of peptic ulceration in non-H. pylori non-NSAID induced disease. This article considers the various less prevalent causes of peptic ulcers and outlines their evaluation and management. Greater awareness of such conditions will improve patient care when traditional causes and remedies are absent.
 Blaser, M.J., Chyou, P.H. and Nomura, A., 1995. Age at establishment of Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric carcinoma, gastric ulcer, and duodenal ulcer risk. Cancer research, 55(3), pp.562-565.
 Tarnawski, A., Stachura, J., Krause, W.J., Douglass, T.G. and Gergely, H., 1991. Quality of gastric ulcer healing: a new, emerging concept. Journal of clinical gastroenterology, 13, pp.S42-7.
 Hopkins, R.J., Girardi, L.S. and Turney, E.A., 1996. Relationship between Helicobacter pylori eradication and reduced duodenal and gastric ulcer recurrence: a review. Gastroenterology, 110(4), pp.1244-1252.
 El-Deen, E.Z., El-Mahdy, N.A., El Rashidy, M.A., Ghorab, M.M., Gad, S. and Yassin, H.A., 2016. Diclofenac-induced gastric ulceration in rats: Protective roles of pantoprazole and misoprostol. Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, pp.1-12.
 Yaxley, J.P., 2015. Non-Helicobacter pylori, Non-NSAID Peptic Ulcer Disease: An Important Consideration in the Evaluation of Patients with Gastric or Duodenal Ulcers. Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, pp.1-8.