News Release on Drought Research: March -2019

(UPLC‐HRMS‐based untargeted metabolic profiling reveals changes in chickpea Cicer arietinum) metabolome following long‐term drought stress

Genetic improvement for drought tolerance in chickpea needs a solid understanding of organic chemistry processes committed totally different physiological mechanisms. the target of this study is to demonstrate genetic variations in altered metabolic levels in chickpea varieties (tolerant and sensitive) adult underneath different water regimes through ultrahigh‐performance liquid chromatography/high‐resolution mass spectrometry‐based untargeted metabolomic identification. Chickpea plants were exposed to drought stress at the 3‐leaf stage for twenty five days, and therefore the leaves were harvested at fourteen and twenty five days when the imposition of drought stress. Stress created vital reduction in chlorophyl content, Fv/Fm, relative water content, and shoot and root dry weight. Twenty well-known metabolites were identified as {most important|most vital|most vital} by two totally different ways together with significant analysis of metabolites and partial statistical procedure discriminant analysis. the foremost pronounced increase in accumulation because of drought stress was incontestible for allantoin, l‐proline, l‐arginine, l‐histidine, l‐isoleucine, and tryptophane. Metabolites that showed a bated level of accumulation underneath drought conditions were B complex, essential amino acid, gamma‐aminobutyric acid, alanine, essential amino acid, tyrosine, glucosamine, guanine, and aminoalkanoic acid. Aminoacyl‐tRNA and plant secondary matter synthesis and aminoalkanoic acid metabolism or synthesis pathways were concerned in manufacturing genetic variation underneath drought conditions. Metabolic changes in lightweight of drought conditions highlighted pools of metabolites that have an effect on the metabolic and physiological adjustment in chickpea that reduced drought impacts. [1]

Hydrological niche segregation defines forest structure and drought tolerance strategies in a seasonal Amazon forest

The relationship between growth depth and above‐ground hydraulic traits will doubtless outline drought resistance ways that are necessary in determinant species distribution and existence in seasonal tropical forests, and understanding this is often necessary for predicting the results of future temperature change in these ecosystems.

We assessed the growth depth of twelve dominant tree species (representing c. forty two of the forest basal area) in an exceedingly seasonal Amazon forest victimization the stable atom ratios (δ18O and δ2H) of water collected from tree vascular tissue and soils from a spread of depths. we tend to took advantage of a serious ENSO‐related drought in 2015/2016 that caused substantial state change atom enrichment within the soil and unconcealed water use ways of every species below extreme conditions. we tend to measured the minimum time of year leaf water potential each Associate in Nursing exceedingly|in a very} traditional year (2014; Ψnon‐ENSO) and in an extreme drought year (2015; ΨENSO). what is more, we tend to measured vascular tissue hydraulic traits that indicate water potential thresholds trees tolerate while not risking hydraulic failure (P50 and P88).

We demonstrate that coexistent trees are for the most part divided on one hydrological niche axis outlined by root depth variations, access to lightweight and tolerance of tide potential. These variations in growth depth were powerfully associated with tree size; diameter at breast height (DBH) explained seventy two of the variation within the δ18Oxylem. in addition, δ18Oxylem explained forty nine of the variation in P50 and seventieth of P88, with shallow‐rooted species additional tolerant of tide potentials, whereas δ18O of vascular tissue water explained forty seven and seventy seven of the variation of minimum Ψnon‐ENSO and ΨENSO.

We propose a brand new formulation to estimate an efficient useful growth depth, i.e. the possible soil depth from that roots will sustain water uptake for physiological functions, victimization DBH as predictor of root depth at this website. supported these estimates, we tend to conclude that growth depth varies consistently across the foremost copious families, genera and species at the Tapajós forest, which understorey species specifically are restricted to shallow growth depths.

Our results support the speculation of hydrological niche segregation and its underlying trade‐off associated with drought resistance, that conjointly have an effect on the dominance structure of trees during this seasonal jap Amazon forest.

Synthesis. Our results support the speculation of hydrological niche segregation and demonstrate its underlying trade‐off associated with drought resistance (access to problem vs. tolerance of terribly tide potentials). we tend to found that the one hydrological axis shaping water use traits was powerfully associated with tree size, and infer that periodic extreme droughts influence community composition and also the dominance structure of trees during this seasonal jap Amazon forest. [2]

Valuing transgenic drought tolerant canola using real options

Building on the applying of real choices to price analysis and development (R&D) investment, this paper extends the applying to price new canola varieties still being developed victimization sequence technology in Australia. during this study we have a tendency to develop associate economic model victimization real choices and town simulation to estimate the ex-ante price of attribute technologies underneath development. The model is applied to empirical field trial knowledge for Australian canola that has been genetically changed to extend its tolerance to drought. The results show that drought tolerant canola is additional profitable for farmers than cropping with typical canola. The results conjointly quantitatively demonstrate why breeding for drought tolerance because it is usually outlined, with a yield deficit underneath average rain conditions, is associate unattractive investment, and why a yield advantage across rain levels is important for the attribute to own market price. Investment analysis and designing is at the core of agricultural strategy and it’s troublesome however essential to be ready to measure R&D investments whereas they’re still in development. This paper contributes to it cause by demonstrating however real choices are often accustomed price a live investment in sequence technology. [3]

Termites mitigate effects of drought in tropical rainforests

Termites are usually thought to be one in every of the foremost harmful insect pests, however of course solely four of the three,000 white ant species identified globally are pests. Its unknown facet was recently disclosed by a significant new study revealed within the journal Science — the cooperative analysis co-led by Dr Louise choreographer of the University of metropolis, with researchers from the University of port and therefore the explanation depository, London, has discovered that termites really facilitate mitigate against the consequences of drought in tropical rain forests. [4]

Characterizing and Monitoring Drought over Upper Blue Nile of Ethiopia with the Aid of Copula Analysis

The main aim of this study is to characterize and monitor drought distribution and growth over higher headstream of Ethiopia by mistreatment univariate normal precipitation index (SPI) and standardized soil wetness index (SMI) whose joint distribution results in multi standardized drought index (MSDI). The soil wetness and CHIRPS precipitation knowledge from 1st Gregorian calendar month 1980 to 2016 are sculptural. The indices of SPI, SMI and therefore the joint MSDI price over the higher headstream are analyzed. The SPI for various time scales is enforced. The correlation between severity, length and intensity as well as status and drought strengths is computed and analyzed. it’s found that the correlation between length and severity is zero.96 and traditional conditions for SPI three, 6, twelve month time scales are ofttimes determined instead of moderate, severe and extreme severe drought or status. Building on soil wetness and precipitation knowledge of the summer season, the Clayton verb model is chosen supported goodness of match parameters. once setting the simplest verb family for the higher headstream then we have a tendency to applied the joint distribution methodology is applied for characterizing and observance drought. it’s found that the MSDI a lot of clearly showed that the severity of drought across the statistic of every time scales, than SPI and SMI. because the continuance will increase there’s decline of fluctuation or frequency of drought and therefore the rising of drought duration is shown by SPI, SMI and MSDI. By mistreatment SPI6, SMI6 and MSDI6 the spatial  distribution of drought is set from June to August within the years 1984 and 2015 indicate the drought expansions in the jap and western elements of higher headstream throughout the several years. [5]

Reference

[1] Khan N, Bano A, Rahman MA, Rathinasabapathi B, Babar MA. UPLC‐HRMS‐based untargeted metabolic profiling reveals changes in chickpea (Cicer arietinum) metabolome following long‐term drought stress. Plant, cell & environment. 2019 Jan;42(1):115-32. (web link)

[2] Brum M, Vadeboncoeur MA, Ivanov V, Asbjornsen H, Saleska S, Alves LF, Penha D, Dias JD, Aragão LE, Barros F, Bittencourt P. Hydrological niche segregation defines forest structure and drought tolerance strategies in a seasonal Amazon forest. Journal of Ecology. 2019 Jan;107(1):318-33. (web link)

[3] Wynn K, Spangenberg G, Smith KF, Wilson W. Valuing transgenic drought tolerant canola using real options. Economics of Innovation and New Technology. 2019 Apr 3;28(3):279-95. (web link)

[4] Termites mitigate effects of drought in tropical rainforests

Date: January 10, 2019
Source: The University of Hong Kong (web link)

[5] Characterizing and Monitoring Drought over Upper Blue Nile of Ethiopia with the Aid of Copula Analysis

Abebe Kebede
Department of Physics, Washera Geospace and Radar Science Laboratory, Science College, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia and Department of Meteorology and Hydrology, College of Natural Science, Arba Minch University, Ethiopia.

U. Jaya Prakash Raju
Department of Physics, Washera Geospace and Radar Science Laboratory, Science College, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.

Diriba Koricha
Ethiopia USGS/Famine Early Warning Systems Network, Ethiopia.

Melessew Nigussie
Department of Physics, Washera Geospace and Radar Science Laboratory, Science College, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. (web link)

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