A new approach to practical acute toxicity testing
A method for the investigation of the acute toxicity of AN unknown chemical substance, with AN estimation on the LD50, is delineate. Using this, it’s attainable to get with thirteen experimental animals adequate info on the acute toxicity and on the LD50. This technique has no limitations and applies to medication, agricultural and industrial chemicals. It will be used for each route of administration. 
Acute toxicity of ropivacaine compared with that of bupivacaine.
The acute central nervous and vas effects of the native anesthetics ropivacaine and bupivacaine were compared in twelve volunteers during a irregular double-blind manner with use of blood vessel infusions at a rate of ten mg/min up to a peak dose of one hundred fifty mg. The volunteers were all healthy men. They were familiarised with the central system (CNS) harmful effects of native anesthetics by receiving a preliminary shot of local anaesthetic. The infusions of ropivacaine and bupivacaine got not but seven days apart. central nervous system toxicity was known by the CNS symptoms and therefore the volunteers were told to request that the infusion be stopped after they felt definite however not severe symptoms of toxicity like symptom of the mouth, lightheadedness, and symptom. within the absence of definite symptoms, the infusion was stopped when one hundred fifty mg had been given. circulatory system (CVS) changes in physical phenomenon associate degreed heart muscle ability were monitored exploitation an instructive medical instrument (which measured PR interval, QRS period, and QT interval corrected for heart rate) and diagnostic technique (which measured left bodily cavity dimensions from that stroke volume and ejection fraction were calculated). Ropivacaine caused less central nervous system symptoms and was a minimum of twenty fifth less harmful than bupivacaine in relevancy the dose tolerated. each medication accrued rate and blood pressure. Stroke volume and ejection fraction were reduced. There was no amendment in rate of flow. though each medication caused proof of depression of physical phenomenon and ability, these appeared at lower dose and lower plasma concentrations with bupivacaine than with ropivacaine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) 
Measurement of pollutant toxicity to fish I. Bioassay methods for acute toxicity
The review describes profitable strategies for measure deadly levels of pollutants for aquatic organisms. strategies for analysis within the laboratory ar stressed however an equivalent principles may be applied in field work. bigger use of normal toxicologic strategies and language is urged.
For 211 out of 375 toxicity tests reviewed, acute deadly action apparently ceased among four days, though this tabulation could are biased towards short times by an outsized variety of static tests.
The inchoate LC50 (lethal concentration for fifty per cent of people on long exposure) is usually recommended because the most helpful single criterion of toxicity. If this can’t be calculable, the 4-day LC50 could be a helpful substitute, and infrequently its equivalent.
A fascinating beginning in toxicity tests is to estimate median deadly time for every of a series of concentrations. A toxicity curve ought to be drawn by plotting median survival times against concentrations on exponent paper. The curve helps to reveal any uncommon options of toxicity. Whenever potential, tests ought to be prolonged till the toxicity curve becomes parallel to the time axis, indicating a deadly threshold concentration. The inchoate LC50 is then calculable by choosing Associate in Nursing exposure time from the straight line a part of the toxicity curve; for this exposure time, discovered mortality is planned against concentration on log-probit paper, and therefore the LC50 is scan from Associate in Nursing eye-fitted line. Confidence limits of the LC50 can also be calculable by simplified strategies. These ought to be in revealed work at the side of a price for slope of the probit line.
Alternative approaches use reciprocal transformations or estimate LC50’s for a series of exposure times.
A graph is given for estimating partial replacement times of water in tanks of continuous-flow tests. Rate of flow ought to provides a short partial replacement time, like a flow adequate to volume in 3–5 unit of time, and additionally adequate water for respiration of fish, sometimes a pair of or three l/g of fish/day, or more. 
Exposure Medium: Key in Identifying Free Ag+ as the Exclusive Species of Silver Nanoparticles with Acute Toxicity to Daphnia magna
It is still not terribly clear what roles the assorted silver species play within the toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). during this study, we tend to found that ancient exposure media lead to uncontrollable however consistent chemistry transformation of AgNPs, inflicting artifacts in determination of median deadly concentration (LC50) and impeding the identification of silver species to blame for the acute toxicity of AgNPs to branchiopod magna. This obstacle was overcome by exploitation eight h exposure in zero.1 mmol L−1 NaNO3 medium, during which we tend to measured the 8-h LC50 of seven AgNPs with completely different sizes and coatings, and determined the concentrations of varied silver species. The LC50 as free Ag+ of the seven AgNPs (0.37–0.44 μg L−1) united okay thereupon of AgNO3 (0.40 μg L−1), and showed rock bottom price compared thereto as total silver, total Ag+, and dissolved silver, demonstrating free Ag+ is solely to blame for the acute toxicity of AgNPs to D. magna, whereas different silver species in AgNPs don’t have any contribution to the acute toxicity. Our results incontestable the nice importance of developing acceptable exposure media for evaluating risk of nanomaterials. 
Acute Toxicity of Adenia cissampeloides in Farmed African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus)
The study evaluated acute toxicity of Adenia cissampeloides leaf extract on youth stages of farmed African catfish. one hundred sixty fingerlings were divided into four teams employing a fully randomised style in an exceedingly factorial layout and were exposed to twenty five, fifty and one hundred mg/L of the extract for twenty-four, 48, seventy two and ninety six hours, severally whereas the management animals were unbroken with none treatment. the proportion morbidity and acute – fatal toxicity (LC50) were determined for the various durations of exposure. Results obtained indicated a big dose – dependent increase in mortality in teams of animals treated with the extract of the plant whereas no mortality was recorded within the management cluster. Moreover, the length of exposure conjointly affected the morbidity, with the very best share of mortality discovered in teams of animals exposed the extract for ninety six h. The LC50 for the Adenia cissampeloides extract to ninety six h exposure was forty two.38 mg/L with lower and higher confidence limits of twenty-two.20 and 80.88 mg/L. Therefore, the study shows that Adenia cissampeloides extract has acute harmful effects on youth stages of farmed African catfish. 
 Lorke, D., 1983. A new approach to practical acute toxicity testing. Archives of toxicology, 54(4), pp.275-287. (Web Link)
 Scott, D.B., Lee, A., Fagan, D., Bowler, G.M., Bloomfield, P. and Lundh, R., 1989. Acute toxicity of ropivacaine compared with that of bupivacaine. Anesthesia and analgesia, 69(5), pp.563-569. (Web Link)
 Sprague, J.B., 1969. Measurement of pollutant toxicity to fish I. Bioassay methods for acute toxicity. Water Research, 3(11), pp.793-821. (Web Link)
 Exposure Medium: Key in Identifying Free Ag+ as the Exclusive Species of Silver Nanoparticles with Acute Toxicity to Daphnia magna
Mo-Hai Shen, Xiao-Xia Zhou, Xiao-Ya Yang, Jing-Bo Chao, Rui Liu & Jing-Fu Liu
Scientific Reports volume 5, Article number: 9674 (2015) (Web Link)
 Ekpo, P. B., Uno, U. U., Okolo, C. M., Agu, R. B. and Onwudike, C. F. (2017) “Acute Toxicity of Adenia cissampeloides in Farmed African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus)”, Annual Research & Review in Biology, 20(5), pp. 1-5. doi: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/38114. (Web Link)