News Update on Aerobiology Research: May – 2019

Aerobiology and the global transport of desert dust

Desert winds aerosolize many billion heaps of soil-derived mud annually, together with targeted seasonal pulses from continent and Asia. These water and continental mud events inject an oversized pulse of microorganisms and spore into the atmosphere and will so have a job in transporting pathogens or increasing the biology vary of some organisms by facilitating long-distance spreading events. As we have a tendency to discuss here, whether or not such spreading events area unit occurring is simply currently setting out to be investigated. large mud events produce Associate in Nursing part bridge over land and ocean, and also the microbiota contained at intervals them might impact downwind ecosystems. Such spreading is of interest attributable to the doable health effects of allergens and pathogens which may be carried with the mud. [1]

An update on pollen and fungal spore aerobiology

Changes in climate ar sterilization spore distribution. prophetical modeling may be wont to forecast long- and short-run changes in spore concentrations. Increasing proof confirms the presence of spore allergens on little, respirable particles within the air, explaining the prevalence of pollen-season will increase in respiratory illness. Like pollens, surface indoor plant aerosols primarily mirror outside concentrations. Basement reproductive structure concentrations could be higher and reflective of native sources. plant presence within the indoor or outside air may be monitored on a part basis or with personal monitors. The samples may be analyzed by suggests that of research, culture, DNA probes, HPLC, or immunodetection. Total plant biomass may be calculable on the premise of measurements of steroid alcohol or glucan in environmental samples. sadly, there aren’t any typically accepted standards for interpretation of plant levels in indoor or outside air. At present, the most effective approach to indoor plant management is wetness management within the indoor atmosphere. this may basically stop plant growth, except from extraordinary events. (J hypersensitivity reaction Clin Immunol 2002;110:544-52.) [2]

Introduction to Aerobiology

This chapter introduces the study of mobile microorganisms and their by-products, discusses indoor and anthropogenetic out of doors sources of mobile microorganisms that have an effect on human health and also the surroundings, reviews the association of bioaerosols and indoor environmental quality, and concisely presents background data on mobile microorganisms as potential terrorism agents. The transport and supreme sinking of a bioaerosol ar plagued by its physical properties and by the environmental conditions that it encounters whereas mobile. the foremost necessary physical characteristics ar the scale, density, and form of the droplets or particles, whereas the foremost vital environmental conditions ar the temperature, ratio, and magnitude of air currents. various anthropogenetic activities function the origin of bioaerosols in out of doors environments, particularly agricultural practices and waste matter treatment processes. In summary, interest within the populations of mobile microorganisms in agricultural and industrial settings, health care facilities, residences, offices, and room environments has increased  in recent years. The threat of purposeful unharness of microorganisms as terrorism agents has prompted revived interest in aerobiology, and analysis activity during this space of environmental biological science has chop-chop dilated. [3]

Aerobiology on Commercial Air Routes

WHILE i used to be a rider from New Seeland to the uk in Sept 1947, i used to be ready to expose magnifier slides on a stick command out from industrial flying boats, and that i at bay as several as 143 spore grains and 273 flora spores on 7•5 sq. cm. of adhesive surface exposed for 5 minutes at a hundred and forty knots (about one hundred sixty m.p.h.). Proctor1 outlines variety of sophisticated constructions for exposure of slides from aeroplanes; however the straightforward methodology I actually have used makes it attainable for biologists move as standard passengers on industrial craft to contribute to our data of aerobiology. the tactic is because of a suggestion by adult male. E. A. Madden of the Department of Scientific and Industrial analysis, New Seeland, to run a number one wire before the slides to interrupt up the pressure cone, and to contour the stick behind so as to stop turbulence from increasing its apparent breadth. At the lower speed of their craft, this might not are necessary for the only slides of Polunin et al.2; and of Stakman et al.3; however the larger surface of Stakman‘s multi-slide entice could have needed some such provision, and thence its poorer performance. My exposures were created through the astro-hatch of the Empire-class hydroplane Aotearoa, over the sea, and thru the window of the steward‘s buttery on the Hythe hydroplane, Hobart, thereafter. [4]

Fungi Isolated from Poultry Droppings Express Antagonism against Clinical Bacteria Isolates

Aim: This study was conducted to isolate antibiotic manufacturing fungi from poultry faecal matter.

Place and period of Study: Poultry faecal matter were collected from poultry farms and markets among Ihiala regime space, Anambra State between March 2017 and Oct 2017.

Methodology: 100 and fifty poultry dropping samples were analyzed. One (1) g of recent poultry faecal matter were weighed and serially diluted. The dilutions were genteel on Sabouraud grape sugar Agar and Potato grape sugar Agar for 5 days. Isolates were characterised morphologically and microscopically. Isolates showing antagonism were subjected to submerged fermentation. The Screening and determination of minimum restrictive concentration (MIC) of the secondary substance extracts was done mistreatment agar well diffusion technique. The isolates were screened for antagonism against four microorganism isolates specifically, E. coli, salmonella, hay bacillus and cocci aureus.

Results: 5 isolates specifically, genus Aspergillus niger, genus Aspergillus tubingensis, Rhizomucor variabilis, genus Aspergillus aculeatus and fungus rugosa were known. genus Aspergillus tubingensis and Rhizomucor variabilis showed antagonism against the check microorganism throughout preliminary screening. genus Aspergillus tubingensis and Rhizomucor variabilis showed antagonism against hay bacillus. once fermentation, the secondary substance extracts from genus Aspergillus tubingensis and Rhizomucor variabilis, were active against hay bacillus at totally different concentrations with MIC of twenty.27mg/ml and twelve.72mg/ml severally.

Conclusion: The extracts from 2 plant isolates namely; genus Aspergillus tubingensis and Rhizomucor variabilis exhibited antagonism against eubacteria subtilisonly. The extracts once refined, might function a brand new drug molecule created from natural supply. [5]

Reference

[1] Kellogg, C.A. and Griffin, D.W., 2006. Aerobiology and the global transport of desert dust. Trends in ecology & evolution, 21(11), pp.638-644. (Web Link)

[2] Burge, H.A., 2002. An update on pollen and fungal spore aerobiology. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 110(4), pp.544-552. (Web Link)

[3] Stetzenbach, L.D., 2007. Introduction to aerobiology. In Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Third Edition (pp. 925-938). American Society of Microbiology. (Web Link)

[4] Aerobiology on Commercial Air Routes

  1. V. NEWMAN

Nature 161, 275–276 (1948) (Web Link)

[5] Ezekwueche, S., Umedum, C., Uba, C. and Anagor, I. (2019) “Fungi Isolated from Poultry Droppings Express Antagonism against Clinical Bacteria Isolates”, Microbiology Research Journal International, 26(2), pp. 1-8. doi: 10.9734/MRJI/2018/46183. (Web Link)

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