News Update on Anatomy Research: May – 2019

The Anatomy and Physiology of the Human Stress Response

In the initial chapter, we have a tendency to provided the subsequent operating definition of the strain response: “Stress could be a physiological response that is a mechanism of mediation linking any given agent to its target-organ result.” By viewing the school of thought of stress among the context of a “linking” mechanism, we will answer one amongst the foremost vital queries in neurotic  drugs, that is, through what mechanisms will agent stimuli, like life events, cause sickness and dysfunction? The response thereto question are going to be addressed  among succeeding 3 chapters. [1]

Deep gesture interaction for augmented anatomy learning

Augmented reality is extremely helpful in medical education thanks to the matter of getting body organs in an exceedingly regular schoolroom. during this paper, we have a tendency to propose to use increased reality to boost the means of teaching in medical faculties and institutes. we have a tendency to propose a unique convolutional neural network (CNN) for gesture recognition, that acknowledges the human’s gestures as a definite instruction. we have a tendency to use increased reality technology for anatomy learning, that simulates the situations wherever students will learn Anatomy with HoloLens rather than rare specimens. we’ve got used the mesh reconstruction to reconstruct the 3D specimens. A program featured augment reality has been designed which inserts the common method of anatomy learning. to boost the interaction services, we’ve got applied gestures as Associate in Nursing input supply Associate in Nursingd improve the accuracy of gestures recognition by an updated deep convolutional neural network. Our planned learning methodology includes several separated train procedures mistreatment cloud computing. every train model and its connected inputs are sent to our cloud and therefore the results ar came back to the server. The steered cloud includes windows and robot devices, that ar able to install deep convolutional learning libraries. Compared with previous gesture recognition, our approach isn’t solely a lot of correct however additionally has a lot of potential for adding new gestures. moreover, we’ve got shown that neural networks will be combined with increased reality as a rising field, and therefore the nice potential of increased reality and neural networks to be used for medical learning and education systems. [2]

Anatomy and Physiology of the Thyroid Gland

The endocrine and its main product, endocrine, play a awfully vital role in human physiology. As such, elaborated data of endocrine biology, anatomy, and physiology is crucial for any medico managing patients with thyroid disorders. The endocrine is unsubdivided organ settled anteriorly to the trachea within the lower neck. a spread of conditions starting from variations or errors within the development and migration of the organ throughout organogenesis to mutations that result in thyroid pathology will have profound effects on the human equilibrium. New insides, like thyroid cell clonality give doubtless vital clues to thyroid carcinogenesis. Any physician playing thyroid surgery must have intimate data of the anatomy of the endocrine and its close structures moreover because the massive numbers of variations they may encounter. endocrine plays a very important role within the operate of much all human organs and tissues. Its operate is underneath AN elaborate regulation the complexness of that we have a tendency to perceive solely partly. The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis provides the classical endocrine feedback regulation, though there’s clear proof nowadays that every tissue could have its own distinctive regulative system moreover.The biological science of thyroid operate is being studied in nice detail. Clinically vital molecules, just like the thyrotrophic hormone receptor and therefore the iodide symporter, are known and well characterised. Such discoveries have considerably improved our understanding of thyroid physiology. As a result, new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for the management of thyroid disorders area unit currently obtainable or in development. [3]

Incorporating Breast Anatomy in Computational Phenotyping of Mammographic Parenchymal Patterns for Breast Cancer Risk Estimation

We retrospectively analyzed negative screening digital mammograms from 115 women who developed unilateral breast cancer at least one year later and 460 matched controls. Texture features were estimated in multiple breast regions defined by an anatomically-oriented polar grid, and were weighted by their position and underlying dense versus fatty tissue composition. Elastic net regression with cross-validation was performed and area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) was used to evaluate ability to predict breast cancer. We also compared our anatomy-augmented features to current state-of-the-art in which parenchymal texture was assessed without considering breast anatomy and evaluated the added value of the extracted features to breast density, body-mass-index (BMI) and age as baseline predictors. Our anatomy-augmented texture features resulted in higher discriminatory capacity (AUC = 0.63 vs. AUC = 0.59) when breast anatomy was not considered (p = 0.021), with dense tissue regions and the central breast quadrant being more heavily weighted. Texture also improved baseline models (from AUC = 0.62 to AUC = 0.67, p = 0.029). Our findings suggest that incorporating breast anatomy information could augment imaging markers of breast cancer risk with the potential to improve personalized breast cancer risk assessment. [4]

A Study on the Anatomy of Zanthoxylum macrophylla (L.) Sarg. (Rutaceae)

Anatomical studies were administered on varied elements of Zanthoxylum macrophylla to work out its classification knowledge with regards to anatomical characters. Anatomical study of the cross sections of the elements (leaf, stem, stalk and root) was administered victimisation microtomy whereas leaf cuticular study was administered victimisation impression technique. Results showed that the cross sections of varied elements (leaf, stem, stalk and root) of the Zanthoxylum macrophylla had similar options as well as rays within the secondary stem and root. The leaf cuticular study showed the presence of stomata on the dorsal surface solely with paracytic stomatal sort. The obtained knowledge are often wont to enhance correct categorization characterization and identification of the plant species. [5]

Reference

[1] Everly, G.S. and Lating, J.M., 2019. The anatomy and physiology of the human stress response. In A clinical guide to the treatment of the human stress response (pp. 19-56). Springer, New York, NY. (Web Link)

[2] Karambakhsh, A., Kamel, A., Sheng, B., Li, P., Yang, P. and Feng, D.D., 2019. Deep gesture interaction for augmented anatomy learning. International Journal of Information Management45, pp.328-336. (Web Link)

[3] Stathatos, N., 2019. Anatomy and physiology of the thyroid gland. In The Thyroid and Its Diseases (pp. 3-12). Springer, Cham. (Web Link)

[4] Incorporating Breast Anatomy in Computational Phenotyping of Mammographic Parenchymal Patterns for Breast Cancer Risk Estimation

Aimilia Gastounioti,Meng-Kang Hsieh,Eric Cohen,Lauren Pantalone,Emily F. Conant & Despina Kontos 

Scientific Reports 8, Article number: 17489 (2018) (Web Link)

[5] Igboabuchi, N. A., & Ilodibia, C. V. (2017). A Study on the Anatomy of Zanthoxylum macrophylla (L.) Sarg. (Rutaceae). Asian Journal of Biology3(4), 1-6. https://doi.org/10.9734/AJOB/2017/36104 (Web Link)

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