Human-induced pluripotent stem cells from blood cells of healthy donors and patients with acquired blood disorders
Human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells derived from somatic cells hold promise to develop novel patient-specific cell therapies and research models for inherited and acquired diseases. We and others previously reprogrammed human adherent cells, such as postnatal fibroblasts to iPS cells, which resemble adherent embryonic stem cells. Here we report derivation of iPS cells from postnatal human blood cells and the potential of these pluripotent cells for disease modeling. Multiple human iPS cell lines were generated from previously frozen cord blood or adult CD34+ cells of healthy donors, and could be redirected to hematopoietic differentiation. Multiple iPS cell lines were also generated from peripheral blood CD34+ cells of 2 patients with myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs) who acquired the JAK2-V617F somatic mutation in their blood cells. The MPD-derived iPS cells containing the mutation appeared normal in phenotypes, karyotype, and pluripotency. After directed hematopoietic differentiation, the MPD-iPS cell-derived hematopoietic progenitor (CD34+CD45+) cells showed the increased erythropoiesis and gene expression of specific genes, recapitulating features of the primary CD34+ cells of the corresponding patient from whom the iPS cells were derived. These iPS cells provide a renewable cell source and a prospective hematopoiesis model for investigating MPD pathogenesis. 
Methods for diagnosing and evaluating treatment of blood disorders
Methods, systems and kits are provided for the clinical staging of blood disorders including myelodysplastic syndrome, myeloproliferative diseases and leukemias by differential analysis of hematologic samples for the distribution of one or more hematopoietic stem or progenitor cell subsets. Additional functional, genetic, gene expression, proteomic or other molecular analyses of the hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from the patients can also be employed in the staging methods of the invention. 
Genetic Blood Disorders Survey in the Sultanate of Oman
The Genetic Blood Disorders Survey is the first community-based survey in the Arabic world and the Middle East to determine the prevalence of the most common genetic blood disorders. The objective of the survey was to determine the prevalence of the most common genetic blood disorders reported among Omani children under 5 years of age in order to provide the planners and policy-makers with reliable information suitable for formulating health policies, planning, and evaluation. The survey was designed, executed, and financed by the Ministry of Health of the Sultanate of Oman. To reduce costs and save effort and time, data collection for the survey was implemented with the Gulf Family Health Survey (GFHS). The GFHS in the Sultanate of Oman is a research project undertaken by the Council of Health Ministers of the Gulf Co-operation Council States. The six member countries have participated in this GFHS project. A total of 6103 households were interviewed. From these households 6342 children under 5 years of age were taken by their parents to neighbourhood hospitals or health centres for blood collection. Fifty-one per cent of the sample were male and 49 per cent were female. Among the child respondents, 17.9 per cent were in the age group 0 to < 1 year, 20.3 per cent were in the age group 1 to < 2 years, 21.1 per cent were in the age group 2 to < 3 years, 20.5 per cent were in the age group 3 to < 4 years, and 20.2 per cent were in the age group 4 to 5 years. Fifty-five per cent of the mothers of the children studied were illiterate, 9 per cent could read and write but had less than primary education, 20 per cent had completed primary school, 9 per cent had attended preparatory school, 5 per cent had attended secondary school, 1 per cent had had intermediate education, while 0.6 per cent had completed university or higher education. The results of this survey revealed that haemoglobinopathies are prevalent in Oman; the prevalence of sickle cell trait was 6 per cent, and of beta-thalassaemia 2 per cent. The prevalence of sickle cell and homozygous beta-thalassaemia were 0.2 and 0.07 per cent, respectively. Other abnormal haemoglobins (Hb) have been detected in this survey; HbD (0.6 per cent), HbE (0.3 per cent), HbC (0.02 per cent). Combination of sickle cell with other abnormal Hb was also detected at low prevalence. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) enzyme deficiency had a high prevalence in Oman, being 25 per cent in males and 10 per cent in females. Among the children studied, three-quarters (74.5 per cent) were found to be free from haemoglobinopathies and G6PD normal, the rest (25.5 per cent), either had haemoglobinopathies (7.5 per cent), G6PD deficiency (16 per cent) or a combination of G6PD deficiency with at least one abnormal Hb (2 per cent). The prevalence of total haemoglobinopathies in Oman was 9.5 per cent. The prevalence of sickle cell trait varied between regions, North Sharqiya had the highest prevalence of 10 per cent. Dakhiliya (9 per cent), followed by Muscat and South Batinah 8 and 7.9 per cent, respectively. The prevalence of sickle cell trait declined by a half in Musandam, South Sharqiya, Dhahira, and North Batinah (4.7, 3.9, 3.9, and 2.9 per cent respectively). Dhofar had the lowest prevalence of 0.2 per cent and no cases of sickle cell trait were found in the Al-Wousta region in the sample selected. The prevalence of beta-thalassaemia trait ranged from 3.9 to 0.2 per cent. Three regions had high rates: North Batinah (3.9 per cent), Muscat (2.8 per cent), and Dakhiliya (2 per cent). The other five regions in the Sultanate have lower rates: Dhahira (1.7 per cent), Musandam (1.6 per cent), South Batinah (1.5 per cent), South Sharqiya (1.2 per cent), and North Sharqiya (1.1 per cent). The prevalence of beta-thalassaemia trait in Dhofar was 0.2 per cent and no cases were detected in the Al-Wousta region. The prevalence of G6PD deficiency reached 29 per cent in Dakhiliya, 26 per cent in South Batinah, 21 per cent in Dhahira, 19 per cent in Muscat and 17 per cent in North Sharqiya and North Batinah. The prevalence declined to 10 per cent in Musandam, 9 per cent in South Sharqiya, Dhofar had the lowest prevalence of 2 per cent and no cases of G6PD deficiency were found in Al-Wousta. The male to female ratio was 2.5:1. In all regions of the Sultanate, prevalence of G6PD deficiency in males were more than twice those in females. From the above rates, it could be calculated that in the whole Sultanate 44,733 children under 5 years of age have G6PD deficiency, 14,306 have sickle cell trait, 474 have sickle cell disease, 5393 have beta-thalassaemia trait, and 175 have beta-thalassaemia major. The study showed that the mean Hb level of children under 5 years of age was 10.9 g/dl for both males and females; the mean Hb level for males was 10.89 g/dl and for females 10.99 g/dl, the difference between males and females was significant. The study revealed that half of the children under 5 years of age were anaemic. Mild anaemia was predominant (46 per cent), while moderate and severe anaemia were 4 and 0.2 per cent respectively. The status of anaemia among children improved with age; mild anaemia was prevalent in 65 per cent of children between ages 0 to < or = 1 years then decreased with age until it reached 30 per cent at 4-5 years of age. The survey produced the first normal haematological indices for children under 5 years of age to be used as a reference in the country. The blood picture of the normal subjects in the survey showed that the mean Hb value for males was 11.9 g/dl and for females 11.8 g/dl. The children had reduced values of MCH and MCV compared to normal international values, the reason for this could be alpha-thalassaemia or iron deficiency. The children maintained high values of HbF (more than 1.2 per cent) even after their first birthday. HbF reached its normal level at 5 years of age. Marriage of first cousins among the parents of the children studied under 5 years of age was 34 per cent. Total consanguinity rate including second cousin relationships and beyond was 58 per cent. We recommend that a national prevention programme for genetic blood disorders be formulated by the authorities. The programme could be included in the Ministry of Health 5-year health development programme for prevention of non-communicable diseases which already exists. 
Oxidative Stress Markers in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders
Aims: The etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) remains elusive, but oxidative stress has been suggested to play a pathological role. The understanding of the potential role of oxidative stress in the etiopathogenesis of autism would be very useful for earlier clinical, therapeutic or preventive strategies.
Sample: To evaluate the redox status, we quantified the activity of the antioxidant enzyme catalase (CAT), glutathione concentration (GSH) and markers of damage to biomolecules, malonyldialdehyde (MDA) and 8–hydroxy-2deoxyguanosine (8OHdG) in peripheral blood samples.
Place and Duration of Study: Sample: Department of Neuropediatrics and Technology Science Division. International Center for Neurological Restoration (CIREN), Havana, Cuba. May 2011- June 2012.
Methodology: We included 45 children with autism (36 males and 9 females, age-range from 3 to 11 years). 42 children of the same age were selected as a control group. The diagnosis of autism was made based on the criteria of autistic disorders as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM IV) (American Psychiatric Association, 1994).
Results: The total GSH content in autistic patients was significantly lower compared with the control group (0.24 ± 0.162 vs. 0.94 ± 0.115, respectively, p ≤ 0.001). Higher serum CAT, MDA and 8OHdG levels were found in children with autism compared with controls (CAT, 2.836 ± 0.479 vs. 0.689 ± 0.157, p ≤ 0.001; MDA 8.6 ± 0.5 vs. 1.76 ± 0.33 p ≤ 0.001, and 8OHdG 13.134 ± 1.33 vs.1.46 ± 0.326, p ≤ 0.001).
Conclusion: The present study supports the notion that oxidative stress is associated with autism, but additional researches are needed to investigate how it may contribute to autistic pathophysiology and these studies are currently in progress. 
Utility of Placental Umbilical Cord Blood in Autoimmune and Degenerative Disorders
Background: Umbilical cord blood is whole human blood (60 to 80 ml) that remains in the placenta and umbilical cord after childbirth; generally considered as a medical waste. It is a rich source of stem cells, growth factor, cytokines, etc., and, can be collected, stored and utilized in the treatment of incurable diseases.
Aims and Objects: The aim of the present study is to establish the fact that placental umbilical cord whole blood is a safe alternative to adult blood and to assess its utility in degenerative and autoimmune disease along with its hematological parameters.
Materials and Methods: It is a prospective two year study (From September 2016 to August 2018) of 250 umbilical cord whole blood transfusions in autoimmune and degenerative disorders at Gajra Raja Medical College, Gwalior, India. Follow up of patients was done up to 3 months and data was collected and analyzed statistically by frequency distribution and percentage proportion.
Results: A total of 250 units meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria were transfused to 99 preregistered patients; Vitiligo 61 (159 transfusions), Thalassemia 15 (30), Retinitis Pigmentosa 9 (23), Geriatric Disorders 9 (24), Aplastic anemia 4 (9) and High Myopia 1 (5). Out of 250 transfusions, in one case (0.4%) adverse event was reported. Outcome of transfusion reveals; In Vitiligo –regimentation in affected area, Thalassemia-reduction in frequency of transfusions, Retinitis Pigmentosa- improvement in vision area, Geriatric patients- sense of well being, Aplastic anemia- prolonged survival and High Myopia-improvement in vision area.
Conclusion: Umbilical cord blood is safe and genuine alternative of adult blood. It is effective in degenerative and autoimmune diseases. It should not be discarded as medical waste and utilized judiciously in the human well being. 
 Ye, Z., Zhan, H., Mali, P., Dowey, S., Williams, D.M., Jang, Y.Y., Dang, C.V., Spivak, J.L., Moliterno, A.R. and Cheng, L., 2009. Human-induced pluripotent stem cells from blood cells of healthy donors and patients with acquired blood disorders. Blood, The Journal of the American Society of Hematology, 114(27), pp.5473-5480.
 Jamieson, C.H.M. and Weissman, I.L., Leland Stanford Junior University, 2009. Methods for diagnosing and evaluating treatment of blood disorders. U.S. Patent 7,514,229.
 Al-Riyami, A. and Ebrahim, G.J., 2003. Genetic blood disorders survey in the Sultanate of Oman. Journal of tropical pediatrics, 49, p.i1.
 González-Fraguela, M., Hung, M.-L. D., Vera, H., Maragoto, C., Noris, E., Blanco, L., Galvizu, R. and Robinson, M. (2013) “Oxidative Stress Markers in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders”, Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, 3(2), pp. 307-317. doi: 10.9734/BJMMR/2013/2335.
 Khatoon, M., Bindal, J., Chandra Sharma, D., Gupta, P., Singh Tomar, A., Saify, K. and Gupta, R. (2018) “Utility of Placental Umbilical Cord Blood in Autoimmune and Degenerative Disorders”, International Blood Research & Reviews, 8(4), pp. 1-9. doi: 10.9734/IBRR/2018/45260.