News Update on Cancer Incidence Research: April – 2019

Estimating the global cancer incidence and mortality in 2018: GLOBOCAN sources and methods

Estimates of the worldwide incidence and mortality from thirty six cancers and for all cancers combined for the year 2018 are currently obtainable within the GLOBOCAN 2018 info, compiled and disseminated by the International Agency for analysis on Cancer (IARC). This paper reviews the sources and ways employed in collection the cancer statistics in 185 countries. The validity of the national estimates depends upon the representativeness of the supply info, and to require under consideration doable sources of bias, uncertainty intervals are currently provided for the calculable sex‐ and site‐specific all‐ages variety of latest cancer cases and cancer deaths. we have a tendency to shortly describe the key results globally and by world region. there have been Associate in Nursing calculable eighteen.1 million (95% UI: one7.5–18.7 million) new cases of cancer (17 million excluding non‐melanoma skin cancer) and nine.6 million (95% UI: nine.3–9.8 million) deaths from cancer (9.5 million excluding non‐melanoma skin cancer) worldwide in 2018. [1]

Cancer incidence in Mozambique in 2015–2016

There is scarce data on cancer incidence in Mozambique. we tend to aimed to explain cancer incidence information from the Cancer register of the Maputo Central Hospital (MCH) in 2015–2016, for Maputo town dwellers, and to match the incidence rates with those discovered in 1956–1961. Cancers with incidence information in 2015–2016 were known by the Cancer register of the MCH. Crude and age-standardized incident rates (ASIR, per 100 000) – direct methodology, world commonplace population – were computed for Maputo town, below the idea that almost all cancer cases among this population were known at the MCH. a complete of 1707 incident cases in Maputo town dwellers were registered (76.6% confirmed histologically). prostatic adenocarcinoma, Kaposi malignant neoplastic disease, and carcinoma were the foremost frequent in men (ASIR: twenty four.5, 19.8, and 13.3, respectively). Cervical and breast cancers, and Kaposi malignant neoplastic disease were the foremost common among girls (ASIR: thirty two.4, 11.8, and 9.5, respectively). Compared with the information from 1956 to 1961, the foremost pronounced declines in ASIR were for bladder and liver cancers, in each sexes, and will increase were larger for prostatic adenocarcinoma among men (172.2%) and carcinoma (237.1%) among girls. Our study highlights the high frequency of infection-related cancers in Maputo, however additionally of these associated with the continued demographic and socioeconomic transition. [2]

Fruit and vegetable consumption and breast cancer incidence: Repeated measures over 30 years of follow‐up

We evaluated the relation of fruit and vegetable consumption, as well as specific fruits and vegetables, with incident carcinoma characterised by biological time standing, endocrine receptor standing and molecular subtypes. Fruit and vegetable consumption, cumulatively averaged across recurrent, valid questionnaires, was examined in relevance risk of invasive carcinoma among 182,145 girls at first aged 27–59 years within the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS, 1980–2012) and NHSII (1991–2013). Cox proportional hazards regression, adjusted for far-famed risk factors, was accustomed estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and ninety five confidence intervals (CIs) and assessed tumors by endocrine receptor standing and molecular subtypes. we tend to prospectively documented ten,911 invasive carcinoma cases. larger intake of total fruits and vegetables, particularly dilleniid dicot family and yellow/orange vegetables, was related to considerably lower carcinoma risk (>5.5 vs. ≤2.5 servings/day time unit = zero.89, 95% CI = 0.83–0.96; ptrend = zero.006). Intake of total vegetables was particularly related to lower risk of steroid hormone receptor negative tumors (HR per a pair of extra servings/day as a continual variable = zero.84, 95%CI = 0.77–0.93; pheterogeneity = zero.02). Among molecular subtypes, higher intake of total fruits and vegetables (HR per a pair of extra servings/day as a continual variable) was most powerfully related to lower risk of human epidermic protein receptor 2 (HER2)‐enriched (HR = zero.79, 95%CI = 0.67–0.93), basal‐like (HR = zero.84, 95%CI = 0.72–0.97) and sodium thiopental A (HR = zero.94, 95%CI = 0.89–0.99), however not with sodium thiopental B tumors (pheterogeneity = zero.03). last, our findings support that higher intake of fruits and vegetables, and specifically dilleniid dicot family and yellow/orange vegetables, might scale back the chance of carcinoma, particularly those who are additional probably to be aggressive tumors. [3]

Reduction of cervical cancer incidence within a primary HPV screening pilot project (WOLPHSCREEN) in Wolfsburg, Germany

Background

Randomised controlled trials showed human papillomavirus (HPV)-based screening results in a major reduction in cervical cancer incidence compared with cytology-based screening solely.

Methods

Non-hysterectomised participants ≥30 years underwent co-testing with Papanicolaou (Pap) smear and HR-HPV testing (Hybrid Capture 2; HC2). girls with traditional findings had their next screening spherical when five years, and HC2+ and Pap abnormal cases were instantly referred for colposcopy, whereas cases with discordant findings had repeat testing when twelve months with referral to colposcopy in cases with persistent positive findings.

Results

Twenty-six thousand 600 and 24 girls were recruited between Gregorian calendar month 2006 and December 2016. 2 hundred and cardinal CIN3+ cases were diagnosed (270 HPV+, 4 HPV−), as well as thirty one invasive cervical cancers (29 HPV+, 2 HPV−). No CIN3+ was detected in HPV− girls with abnormal biology. we have a tendency to ascertained a major decline within the 5-year incidence of CIN3+ (from zero.96% [95% CI zero.85–1.09%] to 0.16% [95% CI zero.10–0.25%]; p [4]

Prostate Cancer Incidence in Calabar – Nigeria

Aim: The aim of this study is to see the incidence of prostatic adenocarcinoma in men living in Calabar- Federal Republic of Nigeria, that has not been determined up until currently.

Study Design: A analysis of prostatic adenocarcinoma cases in Calabar between first Gregorian calendar month 2004 to thirty first Dec 2013.

Place and period of Study: Calabar cancer written record, could to June 2015.

Methodology: Record of prostatic adenocarcinoma cases within the Calabar cancer written record between first Gregorian calendar month  2004 and thirty first Dec 2013,was accessed. The patients age, sex, place domiciled within the last one year; whether or not rural or urban still as prostatic adenocarcinoma topography and morphology were obtained and analyzed. The population of males domiciled in Calabar determined victimization the 2006 national population census knowledge and three.0% increment as given by the national Economic and Social Council commission. Excluded are all male sex organ tract cancers outside prostatic adenocarcinoma .The data was subjected to applied math analysis victimization SPSS version twenty one.

Results: 2 hundred and seventy 9 (279) prostatic adenocarcinoma cases were seen, with mean (SD) age of subjects being sixty four.2 (9.5) years, with a variety forty to ninety five years. concerning 249 cases (89.3%) occurred in those that are fifty five years or older at time of diagnosing, with the most common age bracket being 60-64 years. The age specific incidence of prostatic adenocarcinoma is eighty nine per one hundred,000, each crude and adjusted incidence rates were highest in 2012 (69.4 and 97.4 per 100,000, respectively). There was important decrease in incidence rates within the initial 5 years (2004-2008), and increase in rates within the following 5 years of study (2009-2013). among the 5-year amount from 2004 to 2008, there was a mean annual decrease in incidence rate of nine.63% (95% CI: six.1%-12.8%). However, among the 5-year amount from 2009 to 2013, there was a mean annual increase in incidence rate of eleven.95% (95%CI: eight.72% to 13.04%).

Conclusion: This medicine study demonstrate the incidence of prostatic adenocarcinoma in Calabar, Nigeria, with a predominance of patients within the 60- sixty four years age bracket. West African states must rescale population screening and study of this tumor. [5]

Reference

[1] Ferlay, J., Colombet, M., Soerjomataram, I., Mathers, C., Parkin, D.M., Piñeros, M., Znaor, A. and Bray, F., 2019. Estimating the global cancer incidence and mortality in 2018: GLOBOCAN sources and methods. International journal of cancer, 144(8), pp.1941-1953. (Web Link)

[2] Carrilho, C., Fontes, F., Tulsidás, S., Lorenzoni, C., Ferro, J., Brandão, M., Ferro, A. and Lunet, N., 2019. Cancer incidence in Mozambique in 2015–2016: data from the Maputo Central Hospital Cancer Registry. European Journal of Cancer Prevention. (Web Link)

[3] Farvid, M.S., Chen, W.Y., Rosner, B.A., Tamimi, R.M., Willett, W.C. and Eliassen, A.H., 2019. Fruit and vegetable consumption and breast cancer incidence: Repeated measures over 30 years of follow‐up. International journal of cancer, 144(7), pp.1496-1510. (Web Link)

[4] Reduction of cervical cancer incidence within a primary HPV screening pilot project (WOLPHSCREEN) in Wolfsburg, Germany

Johannes Horn, Agnieszka Denecke, Alexander Luyten, Beate Rothe, Axel Reinecke-Lüthge, Rafael Mikolajczyk & Karl Ulrich Petry

British Journal of Cancer (2019) (Web Link)

[5] Ebughe, G. A., Ekanem, I. A., Omoronyia, O. E., Nnoli, M. A., Ikpi, E. E. and Ugbem, T. I. (2016) “Prostate Cancer Incidence in Calabar – Nigeria”, Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, 14(5), pp. 1-10. doi: 10.9734/BJMMR/2016/23503. (Web Link)

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