News Update on Carbapenem Research: Aug – 2019

Novel Carbapenem-Hydrolyzing β-Lactamase, KPC-1, from a Carbapenem-Resistant Strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae

A enterobacteria pneumoniae isolate showing moderate to high-level imipenem and meropenem resistance was investigated. The MICs of each medication were sixteen μg/ml. The β-lactamase activity against imipenem and meropenem was pent-up within the presence of clavulanic acid. The strain was conjointly proof against extended-spectrum cephalosporins and Azactam. [1]

Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae: Epidemiology and Prevention

Over the past ten years, dissemination of enterobacteria pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) has junction rectifier to a rise within the prevalence of carbapenem-resistant bacteria family (CRE) within the u.  s.. Infections caused by CRE have restricted treatment choices and are related to high mortality rates. within the previous year, alternative carbapenemase subtypes, together with capital of India metallo-β-lactamase, are known among bacteria family within the u.  s.. Like KPC, these enzymes area unit oftentimes found on mobile genetic parts and have the potential to unfold wide. As a result, preventing each CRE transmission and CRE infections became vital public health objectives. This review describes the present medicine of CRE within the u.  s. and highlights vital interference methods. [2]

Carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii: mechanisms and epidemiology

The increasing trend of carbapenem resistance during acinetobacter baumannii worldwide could be a concern since it limits drastically the vary of therapeutic alternatives. Metallo-β-lactamases (VIM, IMP, SIM) are according worldwide, particularly in Asia and western Europe, and confer resistance to any or all β-lactams except antibiotic. the foremost widespread β-lactamases with carbapenemase activity during a. baumannii area unit carbapenem-hydrolysing category D β-lactamases (CHDLs) that area unit principally specific for this species. These enzymes belong to a few unrelated teams of clavulanic acid-resistant β-lactamases, diagrammatic by OXA-23, OXA-24 and OXA-58, which will be either plasmid- or chromosomally-encoded. A. baumannii conjointly possesses associate degree intrinsic carbapenem-hydrolysing oxacillinase, the expression of which can vary, which will play a job in carbapenem resistance. additionally to β-lactamases, carbapenem resistance in A. baumannii may result from porin or penicillin-binding macromolecule modifications. many porins, together with the 33-kDa CarO macromolecule, that represent a pore channel for inflow of carbapenems, may be concerned in carbapenem resistance. [3]

Epidemic of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in Europe is driven by nosocomial spread

Public health interventions to regulate the present epidemic of carbapenem-resistant enterics pneumoniae have faith in a comprehensive understanding of its emergence and contact a large vary of geographical scales. we have a tendency to analysed the ordination sequences and epidemiologic knowledge of >1,700 K. pneumoniae samples isolated from patients in 244 hospitals in thirty two countries throughout the ecu Survey of Carbapenemase-Producing bacteria family. we have a tendency to demonstrate that carbapenemase acquisition is that the main reason behind carbapenem resistance which it occurred across various phyletic backgrounds. However, 477 of 682 (69.9%) carbapenemase-positive isolates are focused in four being lineages, sequence varieties eleven, 15, 101, 258/512 and their derivatives. Combined analysis of the genetic and geographic distances between isolates with totally different β-lactam resistance determinants suggests that the propensity of K. pneumoniae to unfold in hospital environments correlates with the degree of resistance which carbapenemase-positive isolates have the best transmissibility. Indeed, we have a tendency to found that over 1/2 the hospitals that contributed carbapenemase-positive isolates most likely knowledgeable within-hospital transmission, and interhospital unfold is way additional frequent inside, instead of between, countries. Finally, we have a tendency to propose a price of twenty one for the amount of single ester polymorphisms that optimizes the discrimination of hospital clusters and detail the international unfold of the winning epidemic lineage, ST258/512.  [4]

blaOXA-48 Carbapenem Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Clinical Isolates in Sudan

Carbapenems area unit the pis aller of antimicrobial medical care, resistance to antibiotics specially carbapenems poses a world drawback that will have devastating consequences on the community. we have a tendency to investigated sixty seven multidrug resistant clinical isolates of bacteria genus aeruginosa for the presence of the blaoxa-48 cistron exploitation real time PCR. [5]

Reference

[1] Yigit, H., Queenan, A.M., Anderson, G.J., Domenech-Sanchez, A., Biddle, J.W., Steward, C.D., Alberti, S., Bush, K. and Tenover, F.C., 2001. Novel carbapenem-hydrolyzing β-lactamase, KPC-1, from a carbapenem-resistant strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 45(4), pp.1151-1161. (Web Link)

[2] Gupta, N., Limbago, B.M., Patel, J.B. and Kallen, A.J., 2011. Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae: epidemiology and prevention. Clinical infectious diseases, 53(1), pp.60-67. (Web Link)

[3] Poirel, L. and Nordmann, P., 2006. Carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii: mechanisms and epidemiology. Clinical Microbiology and Infection, 12(9), pp.826-836. (Web Link)

[4] Epidemic of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in Europe is driven by nosocomial spread

Sophia David, Sandra Reuter, Simon R. Harris, Corinna Glasner, Theresa Feltwell, Silvia Argimon, Khalil Abudahab, Richard Goater, Tommaso Giani, Giulia Errico, Marianne Aspbury, Sara Sjunnebo, the EuSCAPE Working Group, the ESGEM Study Group, Edward J. Feil, Gian Maria Rossolini, David M. Aanensen & Hajo Grundmann (Web Link)

[5] Elnour Rahma Mohamed, S., Alobied, A., Mohamed Hussien, W. and Ibrahim Saeed, M. (2018) “blaOXA-48 Carbapenem Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Clinical Isolates in Sudan”, Journal of Advances in Microbiology, 10(4), pp. 1-5. doi: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/34964. (Web Link)

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