Epidemiology of childhood cancer
The present contribution reports childhood cancer incidence and survival rates as well as time trends and geographical variation. The report is based on the databases of population-based cancer registries which joined forces in cooperative projects such as Automated Childhood Cancer Information System (ACCIS) and EUROCARE.
According to these data, which refer to the International Classification of Childhood Cancer, leukemias, at 34%, brain tumors, at 23%, and lymphomas, at 12%, represent the largest diagnostic groups among the under 15-year-olds. The most frequent single diagnoses are: acute lymphoblastic leukemia, astrocytoma, neuroblastoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and nephroblastoma. There is considerable variation between countries. Incidence rates range from 130 (British Isles) to 160 cases (Scandinavian countries) per million children. Incidence rates have shown an increase over time since the mid of the last century. In Europe, the yearly increase averages 1.1% for the 1978–1997 period and ranges from 0.6% for the leukemias to 1.8% for soft-tissue sarcomas. The probability of survival has risen considerably over the past decades, with the EUROCARE data showing an improvement of the relative risk of death by 8% when comparing the 2000–2002 time span to the 1995–1999 period. Regarding the years 1995–2002, the data show an overall 5-year survival probability of 81% for Europe and similar values for the USA.
The data presented here describe the cancer situation with a specific, European focus. They are drawn from population-based cancer registries that ensure excellent data quality, and as a consequence represent the most valid European population-based data existing at present. It is also apparent that not all countries have data available from nationwide childhood cancer registries, a situation which warrants further improvement. 
The international incidence of childhood cancer
The International Agency for Research on Cancer has coordinated a worldwide study of the incidence of cancer in childhood. Contributors from over 50 countries have provided data. This paper presents a summary of some of the major results. The incidence rates and relative frequencies of childhood cancers are described according to I2 diagnostic groups, defined mainly in terms of tumour morphology. Variations in the risk of those tumours between different countries and different ethnic groups provide important information on the relative importance of environmental and genetic factors in their aetiology. 
Health Status of Adult Long-term Survivors of Childhood Cancer
Context Adult survivors of childhood cancer are at risk for medical and psychosocial sequelae that may adversely affect their health status.
Objectives To compare the health status of adult survivors of childhood cancer and siblings and to identify factors associated with adverse outcomes.
Design, Setting, and Participants Health status was assessed in 9535 adult participants of the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, a cohort of long-term survivors of childhood cancer who were diagnosed between 1970 and 1986. A randomly selected cohort of the survivors’ siblings (n = 2916) served as a comparison group.
Main Outcome Measures Six health status domains were assessed: general health, mental health, functional status, activity limitations, cancer-related pain, and cancer-related anxiety/fears. The first 4 domains were assessed in the control group.
Results Survivors were significantly more likely to report adverse general health (odds ratio [OR], 2.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.1-3.0; P<.001), mental health (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.6-2.1; P<.001), activity limitations (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 2.3-3.3; P<.001), and functional impairment (OR, 5.2; 95% CI, 4.1-6.6; P<.001), compared with siblings. Forty-four percent of survivors reported at least 1 adversely affected health status domain. Sociodemographic factors associated with reporting at least 1 adverse health status domain included being female (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.3-1.6; P<.001), lower level of educational attainment (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.8-2.2; P<.001), and annual income less than $20 000 (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.6-2.1; P<.001). Relative to those survivors with childhood leukemia, an increased risk was observed for at least 1 adverse health status domain among those with bone tumors (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.8-2.5; P<.001), central nervous system tumors (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.5-2.0; P<.001), and sarcomas (OR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1-1.5; P = .01).
Conclusion Clinicians caring for adult survivors of childhood cancer should be aware of the substantial risk for adverse health status, especially among females, those with low educational attainment, and those with low household incomes. 
Decision-making and Consent of Paediatric Cancer Patients: Between Guidance and Promotion of Child Autonomy
Aims: Assessing how medical teams in a paediatric cancer hospital cope with the legal requirement to search for the child’s consent for an inclusion in a clinical trial and children’s participation in tough medical decisions.
Study Design: Anthropologic Field Study.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Paediatric Solid Cancer of La Timone Hospital (Marseille, France) between August 2004 and February 2007.
Methodology: The author attended medical staff meetings, visits and conversations between doctors, children and their parents. About 200 patients where included in the study. Numerous interviews took place with staff, parents and children, as well as with two cancer-survivors, who were cured of their childhood cancer 30 or 40 years ago. Two “blogs” written by mother of young patients were read in order to assess how medical information was disseminating towards families.
Results: The announce of a cancer diagnosis, the search for the child’s consent or participation in tough medical decisions, imply new kinds of relationships between medical teams and children. That modification of positions is not easy for several reasons. First, children do not always feel free to express their views and choices. Besides, these changes disrupt the traditional model of a “medical paternalism”, where physicians would know by themselves what is good for their patients. Above all, confronting children with medical choices may be of the utmost psychic violence, since children are faced with impossible choice or “double bind”. Thus, medical teams have to recognise the child as a person capable of autonomy but also to provide special protection regarding their vulnerability. They experiment different ways to establish a dialog with children, through picturing, “discursive avoidance” and symbolisation.
Conclusion: Looking for the right balance between guidance and promotion of child autonomy, medical staff can create some “protected areas”, where children are sheltered from the naked truth by symbolisation and “discursive avoidance”, and where a genuine dialog may be established. 
Investigating the Elements of Parent-Child Relationship and Parental Satisfaction among Mothers with Breast Cancer without Breast Cancer and Comparing Them with Each Other
The purpose of this study was to investigate the elements of parent parent communication patterns and parental role satisfaction among mothers with breast cancer and non-breast cancer and compare them with each other. 60 women with breast cancer and 60 women without breast cancer were selected as samples from hospitals in Tehran. They responded to parent-child communication pattern and parental role satisfaction questionnaires. Independent T-test was used to analyse the data. The results showed that there was no significant difference between the mean of mothers with and without breast cancer in terms of relationship and lack of aggressive attachment. The mean of mothers with breast cancer was higher in admission and independence, but the mean of mothers without breast cancer was higher in aggressive control. The mean of mothers without breast cancer in parental role satisfaction was significantly higher than that of mothers with breast cancer. 
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 Hudson, M.M., Mertens, A.C., Yasui, Y., Hobbie, W., Chen, H., Gurney, J.G., Yeazel, M., Recklitis, C.J., Marina, N., Robison, L.R. and Oeffinger, K.C., 2003. Health status of adult long-term survivors of childhood cancer: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Jama, 290(12), pp.1583-1592.
 Bonnet, M. (2014) “Decision-making and Consent of Paediatric Cancer Patients: Between Guidance and Promotion of Child Autonomy”, Advances in Research, 2(4), pp. 231-239. doi: 10.9734/AIR/2014/8274.
 Fashi, F. and Ghiasi, F. (2018) “Investigating the Elements of Parent-Child Relationship and Parental Satisfaction among Mothers with Breast Cancer without Breast Cancer and Comparing Them with Each Other”, Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, 23(5), pp. 1-8. doi: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/43007.