News Update on Endometrial Cancer Research: April – 2019

Loss of exosomal miR‐148b from cancer‐associated fibroblasts promotes endometrial cancer cell invasion and cancer metastasis

Cancer‐associated fibroblasts (CAFs) play crucial roles in growth progression, given the dependence of cancer cells on stromal support. Therefore, understanding however CAFs communicate with endometrial carcinoma cell in growth atmosphere is very important for endometrial cancer medical care. Exosomes, that contain proteins and noncoding polymer, are known as a vital intermediator of cell–cell communication. However, the perform of exosomes in endometrial carcinoma metastasis remains poorly understood. within the current study we have a tendency to found that CAF‐derived exosomes considerably promoted endometrial carcinoma cell invasion examination to those from traditional fibroblasts (NFs). we have a tendency to known a big decrease of miR‐148b in CAFs and CAFs‐derived exosomes. By exogenously transfect microRNAs, we have a tendency to incontestable  that miR‐148b can be transferred from CAFs to endometrial carcinoma cell through exosomes. In vitro and in vivo studies any discovered that miR‐148b functioned as a growth suppressor by directly binding to its downstream target cistron, DNMT1 to suppress endometrial carcinoma metastasis. In endometrial carcinoma DNMT1 bestowed a possible role in enhancing neoplastic cell metastasis by causing epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT). Therefore, downregulated miR‐148b elicited EMT of endometrial carcinoma cell as a results of relieving the suppression of DNMT1. Taken along, these results counsel that CAFs‐mediated endometrial carcinoma progression is part associated with the loss of miR‐148b within the exosomes of CAFs and promoting the transfer of stromal cell‐derived miR‐148b could be a possible treatment to forestall endometrial cancer progression. [1]

Endometrial Cancer MRI staging: Updated Guidelines of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology

Objectives

To update the 2009 ESUR carcinoma pointers and propose methods to standardize image acquisition, interpretation and news for carcinoma staging with magnetic resonance imaging.

Methods

The printed evidence-based information and therefore the opinion of consultants were combined mistreatment the RAND-UCLA Appropriateness methodology and fashioned the premise for these accord pointers. The responses of the consultants to eighty one queries concerning the small print of patient preparation, mister imaging protocol, image interpretation and news were collected, analysed and classified as “RECOMMENDED” versus “NOT RECOMMENDED” (if a minimum of eightieth accord among experts) or unsure (if but eightieth consensus among experts).

Results

Consensus concerning patient preparation, mister image acquisition, interpretation and news make up my mind mistreatment the RAND-UCLA Appropriateness methodology. A tailored mister imaging protocol and a homogenous report were counseled.

Conclusions

These accord recommendations ought to be used as a guide for carcinoma staging with magnetic resonance imaging. [2]

Immunohistochemical Nuclear Expression of β-Catenin as a Surrogate of CTNNB1 Exon 3 Mutation in Endometrial Cancer

Objectives

CTNNB1 desoxyribonucleic acid three mutations have shown freelance prognostic worth in endometrial carcinoma. we have a tendency to aimed to assess whether or not nuclear β-catenin expression is associate correct surrogate, as assay is cheaper, faster, and a lot of wide applicable than sequencing.

Methods

A systematic review was performed by looking out electronic databases for all studies assessing the association between β-catenin immunohistochemical expression and CTNNB1 mutations. Meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy was performed by calculative sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative chance ratios (LR+ and LR–), diagnostic odds magnitude relation (DOR), and space below the curve (AUC) on outline receiver operational characteristic curves.

Results

Fifteen experimental studies with one,158 mucosa carcinomas were enclosed. Pooled estimates showed sensitivity = zero.88, specificity = zero.85, LR+ = 4.57, LR– = 0.20, DOR = 27.16, and high diagnostic accuracy (AUC = zero.91).

Conclusions

Nuclear expression of β-catenin is associate correct immunohistochemical surrogate of CTNNB1 desoxyribonucleic acid three mutations and therefore can be thought-about within the risk stratification of endometrial carcinoma. [3]

Endometrial cancer gene panels: clinical diagnostic vs research germline DNA testing

Endometrial cancer is that the most typical medicine cancer, however is nonetheless uncommon enough to own worth as a signature cancer for a few hereditary cancer syndromes. business multigene testing panels embody up to thirteen completely different genes annotated for germline polymer testing of patients with carcinoma. several alternative genes are reported  as relevant to familial carcinoma from directed genome-wide sequencing studies or multigene panel testing, or analysis. This review assesses the proof supporting association with carcinoma risk for thirty two genes concerned in hereditary endometrial cancer, and presents a outline of rare germline variants in these thirty two genes detected by analysis of quasi-population-based carcinoma patients from The Cancer ordering Atlas project. This comprehensive investigation has crystal rectifier to the conclusion that convincing proof presently exists to support clinical testing of solely six of those genes for diagnosing of hereditary carcinoma. Testing of carcinoma patients for the remaining genes ought to be thought-about within the context of analysis studies, as a method to higher establish the extent of carcinoma risk, if any, related to sequencetic variants that are injurious to gene or supermolecule operate. it’s acknowledged that clinical testing of carcinoma patients for many genes enclosed on business panels could offer unjust findings in respect to risk of alternative cancers, however these ought to be thought-about secondary or incidental findings and not conclusive proof for diagnosing of familial carcinoma. In summary, this review and analysis provides a comprehensive report of current proof to guide the choice of sequences for clinical and analysis gene testing of germline polymer from carcinoma patients. [4]

Gynaecological Malignancies in Calabar, Nigeria: A Tertiary Hospital Based Study

Background: medical specialty malignancies are vital reason for feminine mortality and morbidity worldwide. The distribution and frequency of those tumors vary from one region to the opposite.

Aim: This study is aimed toward deciding the prevalence and pattern of gynecologic malignancies in Calabar, Nigeria.

Method: A descriptive study of the cancer of the feminine reproductive organ tract of 154 patients was undertaken victimisation the microscopic anatomy register of Pathology Department, University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, African country to retract gynecologic malignancies for a amount of eleven years.

Results: Result showed that the foremost rife gynecologic malignancies occurred within the opening accounting for fifty six of all the gynecological malignancies seen at intervals the desired period studied with peak prevalence occurring at the fifth decade of life. the smallest amount rife was cancer of the canal representing just one.9% of cases evaluated.

Conclusion:  The study disclosed that prevalence of gynecologic malignancies is high. there’s thus the requirement for accumulated awareness through outreaches, symposia, academic programs, health talks, etc., to reinforce reduction of the menace drastically. [5]

Reference

[1] Li, B.L., Lu, W., Qu, J.J., Ye, L., Du, G.Q. and Wan, X.P., 2019. Loss of exosomal miR‐148b from cancer‐associated fibroblasts promotes endometrial cancer cell invasion and cancer metastasis. Journal of cellular physiology, 234(3), pp.2943-2953. (Web Link)

[2] Nougaret, S., Horta, M., Sala, E., Lakhman, Y., Thomassin-Naggara, I., Kido, A., Masselli, G., Bharwani, N., Sadowski, E., Ertmer, A. and Otero-Garcia, M., 2019. Endometrial Cancer MRI staging: Updated Guidelines of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology. European radiology, 29(2), pp.792-805. (Web Link)

 [3] Travaglino, A., Raffone, A., Saccone, G., De Luca, C., Mollo, A., Mascolo, M., De Placido, G., Insabato, L. and Zullo, F., 2019. Immunohistochemical nuclear expression of β-catenin as a surrogate of CTNNB1 exon 3 mutation in endometrial cancer. American journal of clinical pathology, 151(5), pp.529-538. (Web Link)

[4] Endometrial cancer gene panels: clinical diagnostic vs research germline DNA testing

Amanda B Spurdle, Michael A Bowman, Jannah Shamsani & Judy Kirk

Modern Pathology volume 30, pages 1048–1068 (2017) (Web Link)

[5] Omotoso, A. J., Odusolu, P., Ekpe, E. L., Okon, U. and Oshatuyi, O. (2018) “Gynaecological Malignancies in Calabar, Nigeria: A Tertiary Hospital Based Study”, Asian Research Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, 1(1), pp. 1-9. Available at: http://www.journalarjgo.com/index.php/ARJGO/article/view/25497 (Accessed: 30April2019). (Web Link)

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