News Update on Gender Equality Research: May – 2019

Gender Equality and Economic Diversification

We show that gender inequality decreases the variety of goods countries produce and export, in particular in low-income and developing countries. We argue that this happens through at least two channels: first, gender gaps in opportunity, such as lower educational enrollment rates for girls than for boys, harm diversification by constraining the potential pool of human capital available in an economy. Second, gender gaps in the labor market impede the development of new ideas by decreasing the efficiency of the labor force. Our empirical estimates support these hypotheses, providing evidence that gender-friendly policies could help countries diversify their economies. [1]

Do parliaments underrepresent women’s policy preferences? Exploring gender equality in policy congruence in 21 European democracies

Although there are considerably more men than women in most parliaments around the world, we know little about whether male-dominated legislatures neglect women’s policy preferences. Our article addresses this gap by analysing the congruence of policy preferences between women, men and their elected representatives. We endeavour to answer two questions. Are women’s policy preferences underrepresented in modern democracies? If so, which factors explain the size of the gender gaps in policy preference congruence? Comparing 21 European countries, we show that women’s preferences actually tend to be more accurately represented in parliaments than those of men. Moreover, our analyses reveal that this unanticipated finding is not driven by the share of female office-holders, but rather by levels of women’s turnout, which leads us to conclude that who votes is more important than who represents for policy preference congruence. [2]

The Ambiguous Construction of Nondominant Masculinity: Configuring the “New” Man through Narratives of Choice, Involved Fatherhood, and Gender Equality

This article explores the event of gender equality-oriented (heterosexual) masculinity discussing the challenges of constructing nondominant masculine identities within the context of the Danish state. Combining narrative ways with the theoretical framework of masculinity as cultural repertoire, the article offers a qualitative study examining however 3 Danish men construct (gender) identity in regard to being the partners of career-oriented and high-achieving ladies. Analyzing the men’s narrative negotiations of power, gender, and self, the article identifies 3 central narratives made by the lads to render themselves and their family arrangements intelligible and fascinating. Considering however the narratives of (1) alternative, (2) concerned fatherhood, and (3) gender equality work as ways to barter and reconstruct the that means of compliance and autonomy, I delineate and discuss however ancient notions of what it suggests that to be a person are at the same time preserved and destabilized. Thus, the article demonstrates that, whereas nurturing practices and therefore the loss of ancient male earner authority is absolutely reconstituted at intervals the Nordic ideals of intensive parenting and gender equality, a concern of male subordination still appears to have an effect on the development of masculine selves even among gender equality–oriented “new” men. [3]

Pathogen prevalence is associated with cultural changes in gender equality

Gender equality has varied across time, with dramatic shifts in countries like the u.  s. within the past many decades. though variations across societies and changes inside societies in gender equality are well documented, the causes of those changes stay poorly understood. students have posited that such shifts are driven by specific events (such as Title IX and Roe versus Wade), broader social movements (such as feminism and women’s liberation) or general levels of social development (for example, modernization theory1). though these factors are doubtless to own been part chargeable for temporal variations in gender equality, they supply fairly intermediate explanations innocent of a comprehensive framework. Here, we tend to use Associate in Nursing ecological framework to explore the role of key ecological dimensions on amendment in gender equality over time. we tend to specialize in four key styles of ecological threats/affordances that have antecedently been coupled to cultural variations in human behaviour as potential explanations for cultural amendment in gender equality: communicable disease, resource inadequacy, warfare and climatical stress. we tend to show that decreases in infective agent prevalence within the u.  s. over six decades (1951–2013) are coupled to reductions in gender difference which such shifts in rates of communicable disease precede shifts in gender inequality. Results were strong, holding after we controlled for different ecological dimensions and for collectivism and conservative philosophical  identification (indicators of a lot of generally ancient cultural norms and attitudes). what is more, the consequences were partly mediate by reduced adolescent birth rates (a sign that folks are adopting slower life history strategies), suggesting that life history methods statistically account for the link between infective agent prevalence and gender difference over time. Finally, we tend to replicated our key effects in a very totally different society, mistreatment comparable knowledge from the uk over a amount of seven decades (1945–2014). [4]

Family Policies and Policies for Gender Equality in the Nordic Societies: An Analysis Using the Family Models

This paper may be a literature review learning however family policies and policies for gender equality within the Nordic countries move towards a particular family model. the main target of this paper is however family models have helped in rising gender equality in Nordic societies, and the way this has semiconductor diode to the move aloof from the male earner model to the twin earner family model. Family policies from Norge, Sweden and Kingdom of Denmark were investigated. This study relied on secondary sources of information as a degree of departure within the comparative analysis of family models. Journal articles, books, media reports and applied math reports were reviewed in analysing information for the study. at intervals the Nordic countries, family policies represent a vital part of the state policies. These countries are illustrious for his or her intensive support for families with kids through policies going to reconcile work and family life, to share paid and unpaid work additional equally between men and ladies, and to produce solutions that mirror the interest of the kid. Findings show that deliberate government policies towards families have semiconductor diode to promoting gender equality and a move towards a twin jobholder family model. [5]

Reference

[1] Kazandjian, R., Kolovich, L., Kochhar, K. and Newiak, M., 2019. Gender equality and economic diversification. Social Sciences8(4), p.118. (Web Link)

[2] Dingler, S.C., Kroeber, C. and Fortin-Rittberger, J., 2019. Do parliaments underrepresent women’s policy preferences? Exploring gender equality in policy congruence in 21 European democracies. Journal of European public policy26(2), pp.302-321. (Web Link)

[3] Bach, A.S., 2019. The ambiguous construction of nondominant masculinity: configuring the “new” man through narratives of choice, involved fatherhood, and gender equality. Men and Masculinities22(2), pp.338-359. (Web Link)

[4] Pathogen prevalence is associated with cultural changes in gender equality

Michael E. W. Varnum & Igor Grossmann

Nature Human Behaviour volume1, Article number: 0003 (2016) (Web Link)

[5] Nti-Gyeabour, J. (2018) “Family Policies and Policies for Gender Equality in the Nordic Societies: An Analysis Using the Family Models”, Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, 6(4), pp. 1-9. doi: 10.9734/ARJASS/2018/42184. (Web Link)

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