Goat milk in human nutrition
Goat milk and its products of yoghurt, cheese and powder have three-fold significance in human nutrition: (1) feeding more starving and malnourished people in the developing world than from cow milk; (2) treating people afflicted with cow milk allergies and gastro-intestinal disorders, which is a significant segment in many populations of developed countries; and (3) filling the gastronomic needs of connoisseur consumers, which is a growing market share in many developed countries. Concerning (1), very much improvement in milk yield and lactation length of dairy goats, especially in developing countries must be accomplished through better education/extension, feeding and genetics. Concerning (2), little unbiased medical research to provide evidence and promotional facts has been conducted, but is very much needed to reduce discrimination against goats and substantiate the many anecdotal experiences about the medical benefits from goat milk consumption, which abound in trade publications and the popular press. Goats have many unique differences in anatomy, physiology and product biochemistry from sheep and cattle, which supports the contention of many unique qualities of dairy goat products for human nutrition. Concerning (3), a few countries like France have pioneered a very well-organized industry of goat milk production, processing, marketing, promotion and research, which has created a strong consumer clientele like in no other country, but deserves very much to be copied for the general benefit to human nutrition and goat milk producers. The physiological and biochemical facts of the unique qualities of goat milk are just barely known and little exploited, especially not the high levels in goat milk of short and medium chain fatty acids, which have recognized medical values for many disorders and diseases of people. The new concept of tailor making foods to better fit human needs has not been applied to goat milk and its products so far, otherwise the enrichment of short and medium chain fatty acids in goat butter, and their greater concentration compared to cow butter, could have become a valued consumer item. Also revisions to human dietary recommendations towards admitting the health benefits of some essential fats supports the idea of promoting goat butter. While goat yoghurt, goat cheeses and goat milk powder are widely appreciated around the world, goat butter is not produced anywhere commercially in significant volume. 
Minerals in animal and human nutrition
This book is a comprehensive textbook and reference manual that presents concise, up-to-date information on mineral nutrition for livestock and poultry, as well as comparative aspects with laboratory animals and humans. Chapters are organized by established and most common minerals, and present information on each mineral’s history, properties, distribution, and natural sources, as well as their requirements, metabolism, functions, deficiencies, supplementation methods, and toxicity to various animals. Those minerals for which naturally occurring deficiencies or excesses are known to be of economic importance are emphasized. Practical implications of mineral deficiencies and excesses, and of the conditions that might result, are emphasized. Many photographs illustrate deficiencies and toxicities in farm livestock, laboratory animals and humans. The book is aimed at research and extension specialists, feed manufacturers, teachers and students. 
Human nutrition and dietetics
The first edition of this book was reviewed as Abst. 1503, Vol. 30; this second edition, four years later, indicates that the work of the authors in applying modern scientific knowledge to the practical problems of human nutrition, both in health and disease, has been more than justified. Every section of the book has been revised and chapters on fats, food poisons, starvation, obesity, kwashiorkor, osteomalacia and osteoporosis, diseases of the cardiovascular system, diabetes and pregnancy have been entirely rewritten. The material is set out in 6 parts; part 1 gives an account of the physiology of nutrition. In dealing with energy, carbohydrates, protein, fat, nutrition of the cell, minerals and vitamins a remarkable and concise account of the biochemistry and physiology relative to nutritional forces is given. Here is the knowledge fundamental to any understanding of nutritional processes in the mammalian organism; it is the rock upon which this interesting book has been built. Part 2 gives a full account of the chemical and nutritive properties of foodstuffs, with chapters on food poisons, infective, chemical and natural. Part 3 deals with primary nutritional diseases; there is much of interest here and, as one would expect, a chapter on nutritional anaemias brings the pertinent facts to one’s notice and shows how common a cause of ill health and economic inefficiency is the anaemia due to iron deficiency. Part 4 dealing with the nutritional aspects and treatment by diet of general diseases, shows how, in the clinic, pathology, psychology and dietetics are closely interrelated the one with the other. While the diseases discussed here are not primarily nutritional in origin the account given of them in their different clinical manifestations is enhanced by the clear appraisal of the dietetic means for their alleviation. The value of the first part in relation to the whole becomes more and more apparent as one reads. Without this scientific approach the description of disorders of human function, be it of liver, kidney or inborn errors of metabolism, and the discussion of pathology and diet therapy would not achieve the completeness and interest which characterises the whole work. To take but one example, the study of diabetes mellitus with its detailed references to pathology, types of insulin, hypoglycaemic agents and diet treatment reveals the complexity of the problems of nutrition. Particular reference can here be made to the series of 23 diet sheets; these require study. They are extremely valuable and must be read in conjunction with the text. Part 5, under the title of public health, treats of nutritional disorders, the assessment of nutritional status and the ever present problem of population and famine. Part 6, the final section, contains a brief description of the nutritional needs in pregnancy, in lactation, in old age, in different climates, in travels of exploration and in athletics. The bibliography is good. This book bears the imprint of the hand of the physiologist and physician, an excellent combination. It is not too much to say that this textbook should be on the shelves of all students of nutrition, physicians and dietitians. E. W. H. Cruickshank. 
Nutritional Composition and Acceptability of Cookies Made from Wheat Flour and Germinated Sesame (Sesamum indicum) Flour Blends
Aims: To evaluate the nutritional and sensory attributes of wheat-sesame supplemented cookies.
Study Design: Multifactorial Design.
Place and Duration of Study: Food Science and Technology Department, Federal University Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria between March 2011 2012.
Methodology: Sesame seeds were subjected to four days germination under closely monitored conditions of temperature and relative humidity. The sprouts were derooted, oven dried at 60ºC for 6hrs, milled, sifted, packaged and stored at 4ºC. Flour was analysed for proximate, antinutrients and amino acid compositions. Germinated sesame flour was used to supplement wheat flour at 5, 10 and 15% levels to bake cookies which were assayed for proximate composition, physical attributes and sensory evaluation.
Results: Germination increased protein content of sesame from 26.23% to 32.91% and reduced fat content from 52.7% to 23.22%. It also yielded positive effect on the antinutrients. Phytic acid content reduced from 31.59mg/g in raw seed to 16.20mg/g in germinated seed. Sesame seeds are rich in both essential and non-essential amino acids, processing significantly increased the values with leucine, methionine, lysine, phenylalanine, threonine and valine values higher than the recommended daily allowance. Protein, fat and ash content of wheat-sesame cookies increased with increase in sesame supplementation, 5% sesame cookies had 17.27%, 21.73% and 2.35% respectively while 15% sesame cookies had 18.80%, 25.02% and 4.21% respectively. The carbohydrate content on the other hand decreased with increase in sesame supplementation from 53.26 to 48.26%. 95:5% wheat-sesame cookies compared favourably with the control in terms of overall acceptability.
Conclusion: Sensory evaluation result revealed that the cookies supplemented with 5% germinated sesame flour was well accepted and not significantly different from the control (100% wheat flour cookies) in terms of aroma, taste and overall acceptability. 
Phytochemical and Nutritional Composition Analysis of Murraya koenigii Linn Leaves
Vegetable is an indispensable constituent of human diet that supplies the body with minerals, vitamins and certain hormone precursors, in addition to protein and energy. The phytochemical and proximate analyses of Murraya koenigii Linn leaves were carried out according to methods of AOAC. The plant leaves were assayed for contents of vitamins and mineral elements using spectrophotometric methods. The results of phytochemical analysis revealed that leaves of Murraya koenigii Linn contained high quantities of flavonoids (600.25±0.41), alkaloids (343.34±0.25) and tannins (206.05±7.50) with low levels of saponins (0.03±0.01) and carotenoids (0.10±0.05) all in mg/100 g). The results of proximate analysis showed a low crude fibre content of 1.78±0.51% and carbohydrate content of 1.29±0.01% but a relatively high content of moisture 84.60±1.20%, fats and oils 5.13±0.95%, proteins 3.60±1.29% and ash 3.60±0%. The results of vitamin compositions indicated high levels of vitamin C (815.00±0.81), B3 (215.01±1.67), B2 (25.68±4.86) and B1 (13.34±0.59) with low content of vitamins E (1.08±0.12) and A (2.98±0.26) all in mg/100 g. The mineral elements constituents showed presence of Fe (9.44±0.07), Ca (3.77±0.33), Na (46.00±2.00), K (3.13±0.02), Mn (3.38±), Ni (0.12±0.01), Cu (2.40±0.07) and Co (0.08±0.01) all in mg/100 g. Thus, these mineral concentrations are all below the tolerable levels except Zn (80.67±0.78 mg/100 g) which is 40 mg/day. Despite that this plant contained numerious chemical contituents that have therapeutic effects in the body as well as those that are essential for normal functioning of the body, this research suggest additional phytochemical analysis in way to identify which alkaloids are specifically present in M. Koenigii Linn. 
 Haenlein, G.F.W., 2004. Goat milk in human nutrition. Small ruminant research, 51(2), pp.155-163.
 McDowell, L.R., 2003. Minerals in animal and human nutrition (No. Ed. 2). Elsevier Science BV.
 Davidson, S. and Passmore, R., 1963. Human nutrition and dietetics. Human nutrition and dietetics., (2nd ed).
 Olagunju, A. I. and Ifesan, B. O. T. (2013) “Nutritional Composition and Acceptability of Cookies Made from Wheat Flour and Germinated Sesame (Sesamum indicum) Flour Blends”, Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, 3(4), pp. 702-713. doi: 10.9734/BJAST/2013/3547.
 Uraku, A. J. and Nwankwo, V. O. (2015) “Phytochemical and Nutritional Composition Analysis of Murraya koenigii Linn Leaves”, Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, 6(3), pp. 174-180. doi: 10.9734/BJPR/2015/15595.