Ophthalmic Laser Interferometry
If the pupil of the eye is illuminated by a collimated laser beam the light returning from the eye exhibits Newton’s interference fringes. This phenomenon can be used (1) to measure fundus tissue pulsations and (2) to measure the optical length of the eye. A first series of clinical measurements of patients with angiological problems has shown a clear correlation of the interferometrically measured fundus pulsations with circulation conditions. First measurements of the optical length of human eyes indicate a very high potential precision of this new technique. 
Ophthalmic drug delivery systems—Recent advances
Eye-drops are the conventional dosage forms that account for 90% of currently accessible ophthalmic formulations. Despite the excellent acceptance by patients, one of the major problems encountered is rapid precorneal drug loss. To improve ocular drug bioavailability, there is a significant effort directed towards new drug delivery systems for ophthalmic administration. 
An ophthalmic instrument is provided for removing vitreous and fibrous bands from the retina of an eye. The instrument consists of two tubes mounted coaxially within one another, and with an opening adjacent the end of the outer tube. Cutting of the vitreous and fibrous bands is performed by a chopping action set up by the sharp end of the inner tube against the inner surface of the end of the outer tube. The vitreous and fibrous bands which are trapped in the mouth of the instrument are chopped and removed by suction by way of the inner tube. In the instrument to be described, the vitreous is replaced continuously by a saline solution, for example, which is introduced into the instrument by way of a small infusion tube. 
Patients’ Information Leaflets: Its’ Influence on Ophthalmic Patient Education and Medication Compliance
Aims: To investigate the influence of patient information leaflets on Ophthalmic patients’ education and medication compliance. Study Design: Hospital-based cross- sectional survey. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Optometry, School of Physical Sciences, UCC, Cape Coast, Ghana, between September 2012 and May 2013. Methodology: A semi – structured questionnaire with sections on patient demographics, patient information leaflets impact on therapeutic education, and medication compliance, was administered to 400 ophthalmic review patients in three eye care facilities in Central Region of Ghana. Patient information leaflets (PILs) of common ophthalmic medications. 
Formulation and Physical Characterization of a Novel Sustained-Release Ophthalmic Delivery System for Sparfloxacin: the Effect of the Biological Environment
Aims: The purpose of this study was to prepare and evaluate ocular thermosetting gels containing sparfloxacin-HP-β-CyD. The formulations based mainly on Pluronic F127 alone or combined with other polymers. Study Design: Experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: School of Pharmacy, University of East Anglia, Norwich, Norfolk, UK, between July 2010 and January 2011. Methodology: Sparfloxacin, the more effective fluoroquinolone antibiotic used in ocular infection was prepared in form of 1:2 drug: HP-β-CyD spray dried complex. The complex was characterized by several techniques like DSC, FTIR and SEM. In this study, the possibility of incorporation of this complex into thermosetting gels was investigated using pluronic F127 alone or combined with other polymers. All placebo and medicated formulations were characterized physically (colour, clarity, pH, and drug contents). Rheological tests and texture analysis were performed in both non physiological conditions, and after dilution with the simulated tear fluid, to estimate the effect of the Research Article Abd EL- Gawad et al.; OR, Article no. OR.2013.001 2 biological environment effect on thermosetting gels properties .
 Fercher, A.F. and Roth, E., 1986, September. Ophthalmic laser interferometry. In Optical instrumentation for biomedical laser applications (Vol. 658, pp. 48-51). International Society for Optics and Photonics.
 Le Bourlais, C., Acar, L., Zia, H., Sado, P.A., Needham, T. and Leverge, R., 1998. Ophthalmic drug delivery systems—recent advances. Progress in retinal and eye research, 17(1), pp.33-58.
 Peyman, G. and Dodich, N., 1973. Ophthalmic instrument. U.S. Patent 3,776,238.
 Kyei, S., Ocansey, S., Koffuor, G.A., Abokyi, S. and Feni, K.A., 2014. Patients’ information leaflets: Its’ influence on ophthalmic patient education and medication compliance. Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, pp.1217-1230.
 Abd EL-Gawad, H., Soliman, O.A., Barker, S.A. and Girgis, G.N., 2013. Formulation and physical characterization of a novel sustained-release ophthalmic delivery system for Sparfloxacin: The Effect of the Biological Environment. Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal, pp.1-22.