News Update on Virology Research: May – 2019

Real-time PCR in virology

The use of the enzyme chain reaction (PCR) in molecular medicine has hyperbolic to the purpose wherever it’s currently accepted because the gold normal for police work nucleic acids from variety of origins and it’s become a vital tool within the research lab. period PCR has engendered wider acceptance of the PCR thanks to its improved pace, sensitivity, reliableness and also the reduced risk of carry-over contamination. There ar presently 5 main chemistries used for the detection of PCR product throughout period PCR. These ar the polymer binding fluorophores, the 5′ nuclease, adjacent linear and pin oligoprobes and also the self-fluorescing amplicons, that ar delineated  thoroughly. we tend to additionally discuss factors that have restricted the event of multiplex period PCR moreover because the role of period PCR in quantitating nucleic acids. each amplification hardware and also the fluorogenic detection chemistries have evolved chop-chop because the understanding of period PCR has developed and this review aims to update the soul on this state of the art. we tend to describe the background, blessings and limitations of period PCR and that we review the literature because it applies to virus detection within the routine and research lab so as to target one in every of the various areas within which the applying of period PCR has provided important method edges and improved patient outcomes. However, the technology mentioned has been applied to alternative areas of biological science moreover as studies of organic phenomenon and inherited disorder. [1]

Virology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and control of enterovirus 71

First isolated in Calif., USA, in 1969, picornavirus seventy one (EV71) could be a major public health issue across the Asia-Pacific region and on the far side. The virus, that is closely associated with polioviruses, largely affects youngsters and causes hand, foot, and mouth sickness with medicine and general complications. Specific receptors for this virus are found on white blood cells, cells within the metastasis and alimentary canal, and nerve fibre cells. Being Associate in Nursing RNA virus, EV71 lacks a proofreading mechanism and is evolving chop-chop, with new outbreaks occurring across Asia in regular cycles, and virus factor subgroups appear to dissent in clinical medical specialty properties. The pathological process of the severe viscus manifestations and therefore the relative contributions of animal tissue pulmonary lump, internal organ disfunction, inflated vascular  porosity, and protein storm are polemical. Public health interventions to manage outbreaks involve social distancing measures, however their effectiveness has not been absolutely assessed. Vaccines being developed embody inactivated whole-virus, live attenuated, subviral particle, and DNA vaccines. [2]

Multiplex PCR: Optimization and Application in Diagnostic Virology

PCR has revolutionized the sphere of communicable disease identification. to beat the inherent disadvantage of price and to boost the diagnostic capability of the check, multiplex PCR, a variant of the check during which over one target sequence is amplified mistreatment over one try of primers, has been developed. Multiplex PCRs to observe microorganism, bacterial, and/or alternative infectious agents in one reaction tube are delineate. Early studies highlighted the obstacles which will jeopardize the assembly of sensitive and specific multiplex assays, however newer studies have provided systematic protocols and technical enhancements for easy check style. the foremost helpful of those ar the empirical selection of oligonucleotide primers and also the use of hot start-based PCR methodology. These advances at the side of others to reinforce sensitivity and specificity and to facilitate automation have resulted within the look of various publications relating to the applying of multiplex PCR within the identification of infectious agents, particularly those that target microorganism nucleic acids. this text reviews the principles, improvement, and application of multiplex PCR for the detection of viruses of clinical and medical specialty importance. [3]

Systems virology: host-directed approaches to viral pathogenesis and drug targeting

High-throughput molecular identification and machine biology are dynamic  the face of medicine, providing a replacement appreciation of the importance of the host in infective agent pathologic process and providing new opportunities for higher medical specialty, medicine and vaccines. Here, we offer a snap of the evolution of systems medicine, from world organic phenomenon identification and signatures of malady outcome, to geometry-based machine strategies that promise to yield novel therapeutic targets, personalised drugs and a deeper understanding of however viruses cause malady. to understand these goals, pipettes and Petri dishes got to get together with the powers of arithmetic and machine biology. [4]

Oncolytic Parvoviruses: An Emerging Frontier for Targeted Gene Therapy of Human Carcinoma

Replication-competent oncolytic viruses (OVs) are wide used as vectors for cancer medical aid as a result of they possess the power to by selection infect, replicate in and destroy tumour cells, whereas frugal their traditional counterparts. Among OVs, the gnawer protoparvovirus one (RoPV) species inside the Parvoviridae family deserves special thought for its promising antitumor properties. gnawer inhabiting members like the rat H-1PV virus attract high levels of interest as novel antitumor agents, as a result of they will replicate autonomously in oncogene-transformed cells and exert each oncolytic effects in varied cell cultures and animal models, whereas being non-pathogenic for humans. The H-1PV parvoviral capsid has been built to boost its affinity for tumour cells for larger oncosuppressive effects with Associate in Nursing entry deficient three-dimensional (3D) Insilico model of the H-1PV wild-type capsid developed for enhanced affinity of the virus to duct gland tumour cells; leading to increased NK cell-mediated killing of duct gland tumour cells. This review explains the antitumor properties of oncolytic parvoviruses, the bioethical problems related to their use as therapeutic agents and also the prospects of parvovirus-based cancer therapy to explore new prospects of treatments for human cancer. [5]


[1] Mackay, I.M., Arden, K.E. and Nitsche, A., 2002. Real-time PCR in virology. Nucleic acids research, 30(6), pp.1292-1305. (Web Link)

[2] Solomon, T., Lewthwaite, P., Perera, D., Cardosa, M.J., McMinn, P. and Ooi, M.H., 2010. Virology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and control of enterovirus 71. The Lancet infectious diseases, 10(11), pp.778-790. (Web Link)

[3] Elnifro, E.M., Ashshi, A.M., Cooper, R.J. and Klapper, P.E., 2000. Multiplex PCR: optimization and application in diagnostic virology. Clinical microbiology reviews, 13(4), pp.559-570. (Web Link)

[4] Systems virology: host-directed approaches to viral pathogenesis and drug targeting

G. Lynn Law, Marcus J. Korth, Arndt G. Benecke & Michael G. Katze

Nature Reviews Microbiology volume 11, pages 455–466 (2013) (Web Link)

[5] I. Afolami, O., K. Onifade, A., K. Oladunmoye, M. and J. Arotupin, D. (2018) “Oncolytic Parvoviruses: An Emerging Frontier for Targeted Gene Therapy of Human Carcinoma”, Journal of Advances in Microbiology, 12(2), pp. 1-7. doi: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/36776. (Web Link)

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