Calcium and potassium-enhanced growth and yield of tomato under sodium chloride stress
The effects of salinization of nutrient solutions with NaCl, Ca(NO3)2 and KNO3 on selected root, leaf and yield parameters of five tomato cultivars were investigated under greenhouse condition. Results of the study showed that addition of 50 mM NaCl to nutrient solution significantly reduced root volume and fresh weight, calcium and potassium concentrations, leaf number and fresh weight, as well as fruit yield. Addition of calcium and potassium, either alone or in combination with each other, to saline nutrient solution increased root volume, fresh weight and calcium concentration, leaf fresh weight and fruit yield per plant. Moreover, root potassium concentration and leaf fresh weight increased when 20 mM Ca(NO3)2 was added to saline nutrient solution but not with 2 mM KNO3. Leaf number, on the other hand, increased with K but not with Ca application to the saline nutrient solution. Of the five cultivars screened, ‘Pearson’ showed the best performance followed by ‘Montecarlo’, ‘UC 82L’, ‘Pakmore’ and ‘Strain B’ in decreasing order. 
The effect of fly ash on plant growth and yield of tomato
A gradual increase in fly ash concentrations in the normal field soil (0, 10, 20 … 100% volume/volume) increased the porosity, water holding capacity, pH, conductivity, C.E.C., sulphate, carbonate, bicarbonate, chloride, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Cu, Zn and B. Fly ash additions to soil caused significant reductions in nitrogen content, it being almost nil in 90 and 100%. Tomato plants grown in the ash-soil mixture showed luxuriant growth with bigger and greener leaves. Plant growth, yield, (flowering, fruiting, fruit weight/plant, mean fruit weight), carotenoids and chlorophylls were mostly enhanced in the treatments with 40–80% fly ash, being optimal at 50 or 60%. From 60 or 70% onwards, the measured parameters tended to reduce. At 100% fly ash, yield (weight of fruits/plant) was considerably reduced. The boron content of tomato leaves displayed a gradual increase with fly ash addition from 20% onwards, while response of foliar nitrogen was just the opposite. The most economic level of fly ash incorporation was 40%, which improved the yield and market value of tomato fruits (mean weight) by 81 and 30%, respectively. 
Introgressions fromLycopersicon pennellii can improve the soluble-solids yield of tomato hybrids
RFLP-defined chromosome segments covering the entire tomato genome were introgressed from the wild green-fruited speciesLycopersicon pennellii into the cultivated tomato (L. esculentum cv M82; Eshed et al. 1992). SixL. pennellii chromosome segments were selected for a detailed evaluation based on previous observations of their effects on the two yield components, fresh tomato yield and total soluble-solids content (Brix). Differences in the quantitative traits measured between M82 and the introgression lines, or their hybrids with different inbred parents, can be attributed to the alien chromosome segments. Replicated field trials, grown at wide and dense spacing, identified three quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for solublesolids content on chromosomes 1, 5 and 7. In plants heterozygous for the chromosome-5 locus there was a 50% increase in soluble-solids yield in wide but not in dense spacing. Plants heterozygous for the chromosome-1 QTL/s were tested over a 2-year period, in three genetic backgrounds, and showed a significant 16% elevation in soluble-solids yield only in dense spacing. These results demonstrate that wild tomato germplasm can be used to improve the yield of the cultivated crop. 
Growth and Yield of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) as Affected by Hydroponics, Greenhouse and Irrigation Regimes
Climatic and technical factors influence tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) production in hydroponics and greenhouse, but there is not much research on management of red volcanic rock as substratum, as well as on water and nutrient solution. Therefore, the effect of the concentration of nutrient solution, irrigation frequency and the volume of substratum on growth, dry matter and fruit production was evaluated, and the economical impact was compared according to costs and yield. During 2007 and 2008, in the Experimental Field of the Universidad Autónoma Chapingo, Chapingo Mexico, concentrations of nutrient solution (100, 75, and 50%), irrigation frequency d-1 (1, 4, 7, and 10), and volumes of substratum plant-1 (5, 10, and 15L) were assessed in a completely randomized block design in a factorial treatment arrangement replicated three times. The results showed significant differences (P<0.05) between years, concentrations of nutrient solution, irrigation frequency, and volumes of substratum in growth and yield of dry matter and fruit. In 2008, there was major growth and yield of dry matter and fruit, compared to 2007. 
Evaluation of Chemical Properties of Date-Palm Waste as Culture Media and Its Effect on Number and Yield of Tomato
Aims: The objective of this research was to evaluate the chemical properties of Date-Palm waste as culture media and its effect on number and yield of tomato fruit.
Study Design: The experiment was conducted as factorial in a completely randomized block design with 9 treatments and 3 replications. Treatments included three sizes (S1= <0.5, S2=0.5-1 and S3=1-2 cm) and three composting times (C1=0, C2=3 and C3=6 months) of date palm waste.
Place and Duration of Study: This research was performed in the greenhouse research site of Isfahan Azad University (Khorasgan) from 2011 to 2012.
Methodology: Palm wastes were separated in three sizes (<0.5, 0.5-1 and 1-2 cm) and composted during the 3 and 6 months. Then, these materials were used as culture media for tomato cultivation. To compare the effect of plant cultivation, the same treatments were used for media without plant. Some chemical characteristics of the culture media including carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N), cation exchange capacity (CEC), electrical conductivity (EC) and pH were measured before planting, and at the end of cultivation from culture medias without and with plant. Number, yield and firmness of tomato fruit were measured. 
 Lopez, M.V. and Satti, S.M.E., 1996. Calcium and potassium-enhanced growth and yield of tomato under sodium chloride stress. Plant science, 114(1), pp.19-27.
 Khan, M.R. and Wajid, M., 1996. The effect of fly ash on plant growth and yield of tomato. Environmental pollution, 92(2), pp.105-111.
 Eshed, Y. and Zamir, D., 1994. Introgressions fromLycopersicon pennellii can improve the soluble-solids yield of tomato hybrids. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 88(6-7), pp.891-897.
 Suazo-López, F., Zepeda-Bautista, R., Castillo, F. S.-D., Martínez-Hernández, J. J., Virgen-Vargas, J. and Tijerina-Chávez, L. (2014) “Growth and Yield of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) as Affected by Hydroponics, Greenhouse and Irrigation Regimes”, Annual Research & Review in Biology, 4(24), pp. 4246-4258. doi: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/11936.
 Mohammadi-Ghehsareh, A. and Shirani, M. (2014) “Evaluation of Chemical Properties of Date-Palm Waste as Culture Media and Its Effect on Number and Yield of Tomato”, Annual Research & Review in Biology, 5(1), pp. 18-24. doi: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/5968.