Sources of household air pollution and their association with fine particulate matter in low-income urban homes in India



Household air pollution (HAP) is poorly characterized in low-income urban Indian communities.

Materials and methods

A questionnaire assessing sources of HAP and 24 h household concentrations of particulate matter less than 2.5 microns in diameter (PM2.5) were collected in a sample of low-income homes in Pune, India.


In 166 homes, the median 24 h average concentration of PM2.5 was 167 μg/m3 (IQR: 106–294). Although kerosene and wood use were highly prevalent (22% and 25% of homes, respectively), primarily as secondary fuel sources, high PM2.5 concentrations were also found in 95 (57%) homes reporting LPG use alone (mean 141 μg/m3; IQR: 92–209). In adjusted linear regression, log PM2.5 concentration was positively associated with wood cooking fuel (GMR 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1–2.0), mosquito coils (GMR 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1–2.1), and winter season (GMR 1.7, 95% CI: 1.4–2.2). Households in the highest quartile of exposure were positively associated with wood cooking fuel (OR 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1–1.5), incense (OR 1.1, 95% CI: 1.0–1.3), mosquito coils (OR 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1–1.6), and winter season (OR 1.2, 95% CI: 1.1–1.4).


We observed high concentrations of PM2.5 and identified associated determinants in urban Indian homes.

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