The kidney’s mixed epithelial and stromal tumour (MEST) is an uncommon tumour made up of both epithelial and stromal cells. Given the marked female preponderance, common history of long-term oestrogen replacement, and frequent expression of oestrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR)
The kidneys are a pair of retroperitoneal organs that are positioned between the L1 and L3 locations. The superior portion of the kidney is positioned within the lower thoracic cage at the level of the tenth rib. The right kidney
Introduction: a cell that is clear The most prevalent kind of Renal Cell Carcinoma that arises in adulthood is ccRCC, which has the worst prognosis among the major epithelial cancers of these organs. A high blood supply characterises this neoplasm.
In two papers published in 1993, laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) was first documented. Despite the fact that the surgical procedure was novel in terms of approach, it attempted to replicate open surgery’s oncological and reconstructive concepts. In this series, we